Preaching as discipling in an authoritarian Korean context : towards a hermeneutics of hearing

Kim, DaeJin (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The ministry of preaching is related not only to speaking, but also to hearing, as faithful preaching is dependent on faithful listening, which means listening to both the Scripture and a sermon. Although faithful listening is very important, the field of homiletics seems to focus more on the study of speaking than on the study of listening. However, through the rapid development of the communication technology, contemporary hearers’ way of hearing is changing as never before. Thus, contemporary preachers need to consider the changed way of hearing and faithful listening to the ministry of the Word. The new hearing or contemporary people’s new way of communication is caused by the secondary orality or audiovisual culture. Contemporary people, especially the younger generation, are affected by the secondary orality culture rather than by the Gutenberg system or the print culture. However, most Korean preachers belong to print culture era as regards communication because of a synergy between the Korean authoritarian context and the characteristics of cognitive propositional preaching. On the other hand, contemporary hearers’ patterns of thought and ways of communication belong to the secondary orality culture. Consequently, hearers struggle to listen to a sermon. The contemporary church, especially the Korean Church, has undergone a crisis because of the problem of the hearkening to a sermon. Nevertheless, the secondary orality culture can offer contemporary preachers a good opportunity for preaching because there is a greater resemblance to the aural orality culture of the early Christian community than to the Gutenberg era. According to Romans 10:17, “Faith cometh by hearing and hearing by the word of God,” but many preachers have overlooked the importance of this “hearing.” As a result, preachers’ readings of Scripture concentrate on self-centred information and human selfish experience. Preachers would preach without hearing the Word of God, thus, from time to time, hearers cannot hear the word of God in the preaching. In order to solve the problem, the preachers’ text readings need to move toward a hermeneutics of hearing so that they can learn from the early Christian community and the Reformation. Moreover, contemporary hearers, as individual consumers, need to change from hearers of a sermon to hearers as disciples, who have Christopraxis in the community of Christ. Hearers, as disciples, need to be trained in holistic small groups as the framework of cultural linguistic preaching, so that they may listen faithfully to a sermon as the words of God. Furthermore, hearers’ faithful listening can lead to good preaching, so that the listening and preaching mutually edify each other. Thus, contemporary preachers need the integration of preaching and discipling for faithful listening to the words of God.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die preekbediening staan nie slegs in verband met die spreek van woorde nie, maar ook met die hoor daarvan, want gelowige prediking is afhanklik van ‘n gelowige gehoor, wat beteken die luister na die Woord asook na ‘n preek. Alhoewel gelowige luister baie belangrik is, blyk dit dat die veld van die hermeneutiek meer op ‘n spreek van woorde fokus as op ‘n studie van luister. Maar, deur die snelle ontwikkeling van die kommunikasie-tegnologie, verander vandag se luisteraars se manier van hoor soos nog nooit tevore nie. Dus, hededaagse predikers moet die gewysigde manier van luister, asook die gelowige luister na die bediening van die Woord, in ag neem. Die nuwe luister, of huidige mense se nuwe manier van kommunikeer, word veroorsaak deur die sekondêre oraliteit, of audiovisuele kultuur. Moderne mense, veral die jonger geslag, word eerder geraak deur die sekondêre oraliteitskultuur as deur die Gutenberg stelsel of die drukkerskultuur. Die meeste Koreaanse predikers behoort egter tot die drukkers-kultuur in soverre dit kommunikasie behels vanweë ‘n sinergie tussen die Koreaanse autoritêre konteks en die eienskappe van kognitiewe, voorskriftelike prediking. Daarenteen, hoort moderne luisteraars se patrone van denke en wyses van kommunikeer by die sekondêre oraliteitskultuur. Dus sukkel toehoorders om na ‘n preek te luister. Vandag se kerk, veral die Koreaanse Kerk, beleef ‘n krisis as gevolg van die probleem van die luister na ‘n preek. Nietemin, die sekondêre oraliteitskultuur kan aan predikers ‘n goeie geleentheid bied vir prediking, want daar is ‘n groter ooreenkoms met die gehoorkultuur van die vroeë Christen gemeenskap, as met dié in die Gutenberg era. Romeine 10:17 lees: “Die geloof kom dus deur die prediking wat ‘n mens hoor, en die prediking wat ons hoor, is die verkondiging van Christus,” maar baie predikers misken die belangrikheid van hierdie “hoor.” Gevolglik konsentreer predikers se lees van die Woord op self-gesentreerde inligting en ervaring. Predikers preek dus sonder om die Woord van God te hoor; daarom kan toehoorders soms nie die Woord van God in die prediking hoor nie. Om dié probleem op te los, moet die predikers se lees van ‘n teks beweeg na ‘n hermeneutiek van hoor, sodat hulle kan leer van die vroeë Christengemeenskap en die Hervorming. Verder, moet moderne hoorders, as individuele verbruikers, verander van luisteraars na ‘n preek, na hoorders as dissipels wat die Christen praktyk in die gemeenskap van Christus beoefen. Hoorders, as dissipels, moet in holistiese klein groepe opgelei word om as die raamwerk van kultureel-linguistiese prediking te dien, sodat hulle gelowig kan luister na ‘n preek, as God se woorde. Bowendien, hoorders se gelowige luister kan lei tot goeie prediking, sodat die luister en prediking mekaar opbou. Dus, vandag se predikers benodig die integrasie en ook navolging van prediking vir die gelowige luister na God se woorde.

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