HIV prevention needs for men who have sex with men in Swaziland : a case study of Manzini City

Sithole, Bhekizitha Nicholas (2013-03)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in the early 1980s, men who have sex with men (MSM) have been disproportionately affected by the virus. Sex between men is the main route of transmission of HIV in some parts of the world. In some other places it is a secondary route of transmission. Worldwide, MSM are classified as most-at-risk populations because of their higher risk of HIV transmission. Although sex between men occurs in most societies, its existence, importance in HIV prevention are frequently denied. Often, these men are neglected in HIV prevention interventions. Sexual acts between men have often been condemned and sometimes criminalized. In some countries, penalties for those accused of sexual acts between men are among the severest available. Elsewhere, even where same-sex behaviour is not illegal, there is frequently unofficial persecution by the authorities or discrimination against or stigmatisation of those men known or thought to be having sexual relations with other men. For these reasons, in many parts of the world, sex between men is hidden or secretive. This makes an assessment of its extent, and of the various types of sexual acts that occur, even more difficult. As a result of being neglected, there has been generally lack of research and services directed towards MSM. In sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, it was only over 10 years ago, in 2001, when the first behavioural survey among MSM was conducted. However, few countries have conducted such studies and MSM’s specific health needs, especially for HIV prevention, are still not being met. In most countries, like Swaziland, the HIV prevalence is still generalized. Although Swaziland bears the burden the highest HIV prevalence in the world at 26% for the age group 15-49 (UNAIDS, 2010), interventions to MSM and other most-at-risk populations are limited. The study’s main aim was to identify the prevention needs of MSM in Swaziland. A total of 50 MSM were interviewed in order to find information. In addition, five key informants who were managers of HIV prevention programmes were also interviewed. It was established that there is a gap between the MSM’s needs and the interventions currently available. There were factors that put MSM at risk for HIV infection that were identified by the study. It was established that some of the HIV prevention did not meet the specific needs and expectations of MSM. Knowledge on some HIV risk behaviours and some prevention strategies targeting MSM was limited.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sedert die begin van die MIV-epidemie in die vroeë 1980's, het die mans wat seks het met mans (MSM) is buite verhouding beïnvloed deur die virus. Seks tussen mans is die belangrikste roete van die oordrag van MIV in sommige dele van die wêreld. In sommige ander plekke is dit is 'n sekondêre roete van oordrag. Wêreldwyd, MSM word geklassifiseer as die meeste-at-Risk bevolking as gevolg van hul hoër risiko van MIV-oordrag. Alhoewel seks tussen mans in die meeste samelewings voorkom, word dikwels sy bestaan, belang in MIV-voorkoming geweier. Dikwels word hierdie manne verwaarloos in MIV-voorkoming intervensies. Seksuele dade tussen mans dikwels veroordeel en soms gekriminaliseer. In sommige lande, strawwe vir diegene wat beskuldig word van seksuele dade tussen mans is onder die ergste beskikbaar. Elders, selfs waar van dieselfde geslag gedrag nie onwettig is nie, is daar dikwels nie-amptelike vervolging deur die owerhede of diskriminasie of stigmatisering van daardie manne wat bekend is of gedink word om seksuele verhoudings met ander mans. Vir hierdie redes, seks tussen mans, in baie dele van die wêreld is verborge of geheimsinnig. Dit maak 'n assessering van die omvang, en van die verskillende tipes van seksuele dade wat plaasvind, nog moeiliker. As 'n gevolg van verwaarloos, is daar gewoonlik gebrek aan navorsing en dienste gerig op MSM. In sub-Sahara Afrika, byvoorbeeld, dit was net meer as 10 jaar gelede, in 2001, toe die eerste gedrags-opname onder MSM is uitgevoer. Egter, het 'n paar lande uitgevoer sodanige studies en MSM se spesifieke gesondheid behoeftes, veral vir MIV-voorkoming, is nog steeds nie bereik word nie. In die meeste lande, soos Swaziland, die voorkoms van MIV is nog steeds algemene. Hoewel Swaziland dra die las om die hoogste voorkoms van MIV in die wêreld op 26% vir die ouderdomsgroep 15-49 (UNAIDS, 2010), intervensies MSM en ander die meeste-op-risiko bevolkings is beperk. Die studie se hoofdoel was om die voorkoming van MSM te identifiseer in Swaziland. 'N totaal van 50 MSM is ondervra ten einde inligting te vind. Daarbenewens is ook vyf sleutel informante wat bestuurders van die voorkoming van MIV-programme ondervra. Daar is vasgestel dat daar is 'n gaping tussen die MSM se behoeftes en die intervensies wat tans beskikbaar is. Daar is faktore wat sit MSM 'n risiko vir MIV-infeksie wat deur die studie geïdentifiseer is. Daar is vasgestel dat sommige van die MIV-voorkoming het nie voldoen aan die spesifieke behoeftes en verwagtinge van MSM. Kennis op 'n aantal MIV-risiko gedrag en 'n paar voorkoming strategieë fokus MSM is beperk.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/79995
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