An investigation of the use of groynes as a means of riverbank erosion protection

Van Den Heever, Arende Daniel De Waal (2013-03)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Groynes are hydraulic structures typically constructed from gabions to extend from the outer bank of a river channel into the main flow. The principal uses for groynes are as river training structures, and to protect the riverbank from erosion. This is done by deflecting the current away from the riverbanks, dissipating energy and creating lower flow velocity zones, reducing the effects of erosion. Groynes have been used extensively in the Western Cape since the early 1990s as a means to protect agricultural lands. There is, however an absence of published manuals for the design of groynes around bends as a means of riverbank protection. This study was done to better understand the flow, scour and sediment deposition patterns associated with implementing a series of groynes around a bend. A physical model of a typical sinusoidal South African river was constructed in the Hydraulics Laboratory at the University of Stellenbosch. The model consisted of two succesive 90˚ bends to best simulate erosion patterns. Different layout designs for a series of groynes were tested to determine the optimal design for the given situation in terms of the projection lengths of the groynes, the spacing between the groynes as a factor of the projection length, and the orientation of the groynes with regard to the oncoming flow. An integrated software package, that was developed at the National Centre for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering, at the University of Mississippi, named CCHE2D was used to simulate the physical model numerically. The model was calibrated by adjusting the Manning‟s n value of the sediment, and the normal tailwater depth was calculated and used for the physical and numerical models. The flow rate used during the physical model experiments was also used for the numerical model. The model was validated by comparing scour depths obtained from the physical model to the resulting depth in the hydrodynamic model. From the results obtained from the physical and numerical models, it was found that groynes with a perpendicular orientation to the direction of the oncoming flow were optimal. Groynes with an upstream orientation resulted in excessive scour around the nose of the groynes, while recirculating flow patterns occurred at a velocity which caused bank failure. Groynes with a downstream orientation created very little recirculation of flow, resulting in less scour protection for the outer bank than found for groynes with perpendicular orientation. Finally, the optimal design was identified as a perpendicular groyne orientation with a projection length L and a spacing of 3.5 xL. For the given design, eddy currents covered the entire area between consecutive groynes, causing low flow zones near the outer banks, promoting sediment deposition and decreasing the potential for scour. Recommendations for further studies include the investigation of the effects of different bend radii, the sediment size, as well as various channel widths, flow rates and river slopes. The use of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model would also be advantageous in order to better understand the flow and scour mechanics associated with different designs.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Groynes is hidrouliese strukture, tipies gebou uit skanskorwe in Suid Afrika, wat vanaf die buiteoewer van 'n rivier strek na die hoofkanaal. Groynes word hoofsaaklik aangewend as rigmure in riviere en om rivieroewers te beskerm teen erosie. Erosiebeskerming word geskep deur vloei weg te deflekteer van die rivieroewer en energie te dissipeer. Sodoende vorm areas met lae vloeisnelhede naby die oewer wat die potensiaal vir erosie verminder. Groynes is sedert die vroeë 1990s in die Wes-Kaap gebruik as 'n manier om landbougrond teen erosie te beskerm. Daar is egter 'n tekort aan gepubliseerde ontwerpriglyne vir die gebruik van groynes vir erosiebeskeriming in riviere. Hierdie studie is gedoen om die vloei-, uitskuringsen sediment neersettingspatrone, geassossiëer met die implementering van groynes, te ondersoek. 'n Fisiese model van 'n tipiese kronkelende Suid-Afrikaanse rivier is gebou in die Hidrouliese Laboratorium by die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Die model bestaan uit twee opeenvolgende 90˚ draaie om die erosie-patrone te simuleer. Verskillende uitlegte vir 'n reeks groynes is getoets om die optimale ontwerp vas te stel in terme die projeksielengte van die groynes, die spasiëring tussen opeenvolgende groynes as 'n faktor van die projeksielengte en die oriëntasie van die groynes ten opsigte van die aankomende vloeirigting. 'n Geïntegreerde sagteware pakket wat ontwikkel is by die “National Centre for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering”, by die Universiteit van Mississippi, genaamd CCHE2D is gebruik om die fisiese eksperimente numeries te simuleer. Die model is gekalibreer deur die Manning n waarde van die sediment aan te pas, die stroomaf waterdiepte wat bereken is, en die vloeitempo wat waargeneem is tydens die fisiese eksperimente. Die model is bekragtig deur uitskuurdieptes van die fisiese- en hidrodinamiese modelle te vergelyk. Vanuit die resultate wat verkry is in die fisiese- en numeriese modelle, is daar gevind dat groynes met 'n loodregte oriëntasie met betrekking tot die aankomende vloei optimaal is. Daar is gevind dat groynes met 'n stroomop oriëntasie oormatige uitskuring rondom die neus van die groynes ondervind, terwyl hersirkulasie van vloei teen 'n hoë snelheid plaasvind, wat erosie van die oewer tot gevolg het. Groynes met 'n oriëntasie na die stroomaf kant het baie min hersirkulasie van vloei tot gevolg gehad, wat tot minder erosiebeskerming van die buitebank gelei het. Die optimale ontwerp is geïdentifiseer as groynes met loodregte oriëntasie, 'n projeksielengte van 0.675 m en 'n spasiëring van 3.5 keer die projeksielengte. Vir die gegewe ontwerp is werwelstrome gevind wat die hele area tussen opeenvolgende groynes dek, wat area van lae vloei sones veroorsaak naby die oewer, wat sediment deponering bevorder en die potensiaal vir uitskuring verminder. Aanbeveling vir verdere studies sluit die studie van die effekte van verskillende draai radiusse en die sediment-grootte in, sowel as verskillende kanaalbreedtes, vloeie en rivierhellings. Die gebruik van 'n drie-dimensionele hidrodinamiese model sal ook voordelig wees om die betrokke vloei- en uitskuringspatrone rakende verskillende ontwerpe beter te verstaan.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/79973
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