Knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of males in Bindura urban (Zimbabwe) towards medical male circumcision (MMC)

Chimuti, Abigail (2013-03)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC) has emerged as one of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention methods for HIV negative men engaged in heterosexual contact. Many studies have documented its efficiency in reducing the risk of contracting HIV infection in men. Because of that, Zimbabwe like other countries in the Southern Africa region, with generalised HIV infections is finding ways to scale-up MMC in non-circumcised communities. This study searched for knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of males in Bindura urban towards MMC. Bindura is the capital city of the Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe. This town has diverse people with different social backgrounds who economically depend on the surrounding mines and commercial farms. Given the enormous differences in culture, religion, social and value systems among these people it was of particular importance to understand how they perceive medical male circumcision. Methodology: The study was conducted using quantitative data collection method. Random selection was done to choose respondents and age was used to determine eligibility to the study. The qualifying age was 18-49 and a sample size of 60 was considered to be appropriate taking into consideration financial and time associated with large samples. Structured questionnaire with open-ended and closed questions were used to gather data. Likert scale was used on some questions to determine perceptions and attitudes of respondents. The questionnaires used to solicit information did not require respondent to provide his name for purposes of maintain confidentiality but contained identification number. In some cases, Chi-square test for independence was conducted to test for associations between demographic characteristics and observed responses. Comparison of responses between the age groups 18-29 and 30-49 years were also done to determine if there were some differences in representations of respondents in observed responses. Results: The study aimed to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of males in Bindura urban towards MMC and barriers they were confronting in accessing MMC. Respondents showed high level of awareness about HIV/AIDS intensity in Zimbabwe. Male circumcision (MC) was perceived by the majority of respondents as important in curbing HIV infections. A significant proposition of respondents regarded medical reasons as the most common reason why people undergo MC. However respondents demonstrated poor knowledge or understanding of other strategies that must be used in conjunction with MC. Risks associated with operation, its cost and protection of confidentiality and consideration of family concerns were considered by respondents as barriers to MMC. Availability of accurate information about MMC and easing of access to MMC services were considered to be very important facilitating factors. Religious and cultural reasons and stigma from peers and friends were considered non barriers. Statistically significant associations were only detected between MMC being motivated by medical reasons and demographic characteristics of age and marital status and also an association between education level and stigma as a barrier for MMC. The study failed to show a significant association between other observed responses and demographic characteristics.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Mediese manlike besnyding (MMB) het na vore gekom as een van die metodes vir die voorkoming van die oordrag van die menslike immuniteitsgebreksvirus (MIV) deur MIV-negatiewe mans betrokke by heteroseksuele kontak. Baie studies het reeds die doeltreffendheid daarvan ten opsigte van die vermindering van die risiko van MIV-infeksie by mans gedokumenteer. As gevolg daarvan is Zimbabwe, soos ander lande in die Suider-Afrika-streek met algemene MIV-infeksies, op soek na maniere om MMB by onbesnyde gemeenskappe uit te brei. Hierdie studie wou kennis, persepsies en gesindhede van manlike persone in die Bindura-stadsgebied ten opsigte MMB bepaal. Bindura is die hoofstad van die sentrale provinsie Masjonaland in Zimbabwe. Hierdie stad word bewoon deur diverse mense met verskillende maatskaplike agtergronde wat ekonomies van die omliggende myne en kommersiële plase afhanklik is. Gegewe die groot verskille in kultuur, godsdiens, maatskaplike en waardestelsels onder hierdie mense, was dit van besondere belang om te begryp hoe hulle mediese manlike besnyding verstaan. Metodologie: Die studie het van die kwantitatiewe data-insamelingsmetode gebruik gemaak. Ewekansige seleksie is gebruik om respondente te kies en ouderdom is gebruik om geskiktheid vir deelname aan die studie te bepaal. Die kwalifiserende ouderdom was 18-49 jaar en ʼn monstergrootte van 60 is geskik beskou in ag geneem finansiële beperkinge en tyd verbonde aan groot monsters. ʼn Gestruktureerde vraelys met oop en geslote vrae is gebruik om data in te samel. ʼn Likert-tipe skaal is by sommige vrae gebruik om persepsies en gesindhede van respondente te bepaal. Die vraelyste wat gebruik is om inligting te ontlok, het dit nie vir respondente nodig gemaak om hulle name te verskaf nie ten einde vertroulikheid te verseker, maar het ’n identifikasienommer bevat. In sommige gevalle is die chi-kwadraattoets vir onafhanklikheid gedoen om te toets vir verbande tussen demografiese eienskappe en response wat waargeneem is. Vergelyking van response tussen die ouderdomsgroepe 18-29 en 30-49 jaar is ook gedoen om te bepaal of daar enige verskille in verteenwoordigings van respondente in die waargenome response was. Resultate: Die studie wou kennis, persepsies en gesindhede ten opsigte van MMB by manlike persone in die Bindura-stadsgebied en hindernisse waarvoor hulle te staan kom ten einde toegang tot MMB te verkry, bepaal. Respondente het ʼn hoë vlak van bewustheid omtrent die intensiteit van MIV/VIGS in Zimbabwe getoon. Manlike besnyding (MB) is deur die meerderheid respondente as belangrik by die beperking van MIV-infeksies beskou. ʼn Beduidende aantal respondente het mediese redes gesien as die algemeensien rede waarom mense MB ondergaan. Respondente het egter swak kennis of begrip van ander strategieë wat tesame met MB gebruik moet word, getoon. Risiko’s geassosieer met die operasie, die koste daarvan en beskerming van vertroulikheid en agting vir die familie se bekommernisse is deur respondente as hindernisse met betrekking tot MMB beskou. Beskikbaarheid van akkurate inligting omtrent MMB en vergemakliking van toegang tot MMB-dienste is gesien as baie belangrike fasiliterende faktore. Godsdienstige en kulturele redes en stigmatisasie deur portuurs en vriende is nie as hindernisse beskou nie. Statisties beduidende verbande is slegs tussen MMB gemotiveer deur mediese redes en demografiese eienskappe van ouderdom en huwelikstatus bespeur en ook ʼn verband tussen opvoedingspeil en stigma as ʼn hindernis vir MMB. Die studie het nie daarin geslaag om ʼn beduidende verband tussen ander waargenome response en demografiese eienskappe aan te toon nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/79964
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