Factors affecting HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the provision of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services among pregnant women in Kabwe, Central Province of Zambie

Chitambala, Cecilia (2013-03)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research study looked at the factors that affect HCT in provision of PMTCT services. It explored the socio cultural and personal factors that affect HCT. It also established the knowledge level about HIV/AIDS and PMTCT among pregnant women in Kabwe. The transmission of HIV from mother to child contributes largely to HIV prevalence among children. Efforts to reduce this mode of transmission include increasing number of women who know their HIV status and increasing the number of HIV positive women who when pregnant take instructions and act on them to protect their children from the possibility of infection (Bartlett et al. 2004). Individuals can only know their HIV status once they are tested for HIV. However, there are socio cultural and personal factors among other factors that affect the access of HCT. The aim of this study was to identify socio cultural and personal factors that affect HIV counseling and testing in provision of PMTCT services among pregnant women in Kabwe, in order to make recommendations for the development of an intervention program to help improve uptake of HIV counseling and testing for PMTCT services. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used to conduct this study. Focus Group Discussions were conducted with groups of pregnant women that have never been tested for HIV before and Key Informant Interviews with health care workers (midwives or nurses) to ask them about factors affecting HCT in provision of PMTCT services among pregnant women were used. A retrospective statistical report review was also used to ascertain the accessibility rate for the HIV counseling and testing for PMTCT services. In this light, statistical report review was used to collect the number of pregnant women attending ANC and number of pregnant women receiving HIV testing. The findings of this study revealed that the pregnant women had excellent knowledge about HIV/AIDS and the update of HCT was as good as 91% among pregnant women. The research also revealed domestic violence, accusation of promiscuity by partner, abandonment by partner, and stigma & discrimination as socio factors that affect HCT in provision of PMTCT. Religion, fear disbelief of test results was revealed as personal factors affecting HCT in provision of PMTCT. The research revealed decision making, tradition medicines, and practices as cultural factors affecting HCT in provision of PMTCT. The conclusion was made that fear of abandonment by partner, fear of being accused of being promiscuous by partner, and fear of domestic violence were the main factors why some pregnant women did not accept to take an HIV test during their pregnancies. It is also concluded that most men make decisions for their families. Women in homes have no powers to make decisions, so if the husband refuses her to take a test, the wife just has to comply. It is also concluded that a person’s ability to access health related services is shaped by socio cultural and personal factors among others factors. These findings fit well with the Anderson behavioral model which describes the individual factors as having three elements that relate to the individual’s ability to access and utilize health care services.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie navorsingstudie het gekyk na die faktore wat 'n invloed HCT in die voorsiening van VMTKO dienste. Dit ondersoek die sosio-kulturele en persoonlike faktore wat HCT. Dit het ook die kennis oor MIV / VIGS en VMNKO onder swanger vroue in Kabwe. Die oordrag van MIV van moeder na kind dra grootliks by tot die voorkoms van MIV onder kinders (Bartlett et al. 2004). Pogings om hierdie wyse van oordrag te verminder sluit in toenemende aantal vroue wat hul MIV-status ken en die verhoging van die aantal MIV-positiewe vroue wat toe swanger neem instruksies en reageer op hulle om hul kinders te beskerm teen die moontlikheid van infeksie. Individue kan slegs weet wat hul MIV-status wanneer hulle getoets word vir MIV. Egter, is daar sosiaal-kulturele en persoonlike faktore onder ander faktore wees wat die toegang van HCT. Die doel van hierdie studie was om sosiaal-kulturele en persoonlike faktore wat die MIV-berading en toetsing in die voorsiening van VMTKO dienste onder swanger vroue in Kabwe te identifiseer, ten einde aanbevelings te maak vir die ontwikkeling van 'n intervensie program te help opname van MIV-berading en toetsing vir VMNKO dienste te verbeter. Beide kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe metodes is gebruik om hierdie studie uit te voer. Fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer met groepe van swanger vroue wat nog nooit vir MIV getoets is voor en onderhoude met sleutelinformante met gesondheidsorgwerkersVroedvroue of verpleegsters) is gebruik om hulle te vra oor die faktore wat HCT in voorsiening van PMTCT dienste onder swanger vroue. 'n Retrospektiewe statistiese verslag review is ook gebruik om die toeganklikheid koers vir die MIV-berading en om vas te stel toetsing vir VMNKO dienste. In hierdie lig, is statistiese verslag hersiening gebruik word om die aantal swanger vroue wat die ANC en die aantal swanger vroue MIV-toetsing in te samel. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie het aan die lig gebring dat die swanger vroue het uitstekende kennis oor MIV / VIGS en die update van HCT was so goed as 91% onder swanger vroue. Die navorsing het ook aan die lig gebring huishoudelike geweld, beskuldiging van losbandigheid deur vennoot, verlating deur vennoot, en stigma diskriminasie as sosio faktore wat 'n invloed HCT in die bepaling van die PMTCT. Godsdiens, vrees ongeloof van toetsresultate is geopenbaar as persoonlike faktore wat HCT in die voorsiening van PMTCT. Die navorsing het aan die lig gebring besluitneming, tradisie medisyne, en praktyke as kulturele faktore wat HCT in die voorsiening van PMTCT. Die gevolgtrekking is gemaak dat vrees vir verlating deur vennoot, vrees daarvan beskuldig dat hy van promisku deur vennoot, en die vrees van huishoudelike geweld was die belangrikste faktore waarom sommige swanger vroue nie aanvaar het nie 'n MIV-toets te neem tydens hul swangerskappe. Dit is ook die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die meeste mense besluite neem vir hul families. Vroue in huise het geen magte om besluite te neem, so as die man weier om vir haar 'n toets te neem, die vrou net om daaraan te voldoen. Dit is ook die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n persoon se vermoë om gesondheid verwante dienste om toegang te verkry tot gevorm word deur die sosiaal-kulturele en persoonlike faktore onder andere faktore. Hierdie bevindings pas goed met die Anderson gedrags-model wat die individuele faktore beskryf met drie elemente wat betrekking het op die individu se vermoë om toegang te verkry tot en gebruik van gesondheidsorgdienste.

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