Signatures of selection in natural and cultured Abalone (Haliotis midae) : a population genomics study

Rhode, Clint (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African abalone, Haliotis midae, commonly known as perlemoen, is an economically important gastropod mollusc. Historically, this species maintained a lucrative fisheries sector; however with increasingly lower landings there has now been a shift to aquaculture. Efforts to conserve natural populations and to improve abalone aquaculture production are thus running in parallel. Previous studies reported significant disparities in parental contributions in aquaculture populations that could explain the rapid divergence of commercial stocks from wild populations. Furthermore, subtle, but significant, population differentiation has also been reported for wild populations on the west-, south-, and east coast of the South African coastline. This study therefore aimed to investigate the evolutionary forces, in particularly selection, facilitating population divergence in wild and cultured H. midae populations using a population genomics approach. By using both microsatellite- and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers it was found that approximately 10% to 27% of the H. midae genome may be influenced by selection. When incorporating these loci into analyses of population differentiation (e.g. AMOVA, factorial correspondence analysis and estimates of genetic distance) there was a marked increase in genetic divergence between wild and cultured populations (especially when using microsatellite loci) and amongst populations from different geographic regions (particularly supported by the SNP loci). The differences in population clustering as highlighted by microsatellite- and SNP markers can most likely be attributed to the genomic distribution of the respective loci: The SNP markers were developed from EST sequences and therefore mostly represents protein structural variation; whereas the microsatellite markers, found to be putatively under selection, were mainly located in regulatory motifs. The results of this study therefore confirmed previous observations of divergence amongst wild- and cultured populations, but more importantly demonstrated that selection is an important factor driving this divergence. In wild populations selection probably facilitates adaptation to local environmental conditions, whilst amongst aquaculture population adaptation to captivity, husbandry practices and artificial selection may be important determinants. There is evidence for population bottlenecks in wild- and cultured populations; nonetheless long-term effective population sizes seem to be large. Amongst the wild populations, however, short-term population sizes appear to be small most likely due to differential spawning rates amongst reproductively active animals leading to temporal fluctuation in genetic diversity. The results indicate that contact between wild and cultured abalone should be minimised to prevent any adverse effects due to outbreeding depression. With regards to conservation, an emphasis on maintaining adaptive diversity of the wild stocks might be warranted. Continued genetic monitoring is advisable for both wild and cultured abalone populations as to optimally manage the abalone resource for both conservation and commercial viability and sustainability.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid-Afrikaanse perlemoen, Haliotis midae, is 'n ekonomies belangrike buikpotige weekdier. Histories het hierdie spesie 'n winsgewende vissery gehandhaaf, maar met steeds dalende vangste is daar nou 'n verskuiwing na akwakultuur. Pogings om natuurlike populasies te bewaar en perlemoen te verbeter vir verhoogde akwakultuur produksie loop dus in parallel. Vorige studies het bevind dat beduidende verskille in ouerlike bydraes tot die nageslag, in akwakultuur populasies, kan verduidelik hoekom die populasies so vinnig divergeer van die wilde voorouers. Verder, is subtiele, maar betekenisvolle genetiese differensiasie tussen wilde populasies aan die wes-, suid-en ooskus van die land gevind. Hierdie studie is dus daarop gemik om ondersoek in te stel na die mate waartoe verskeie evolusionêre prosesse, in besonder seleksie, die populasie divergensie in beide wilde en gekweekte H. midae teweegbring deur gebruik te maak van ‘n populasie genomika benadering. Deur gebruik te maak van beide mikrosatelliet- en enkel nukleotied polimorfisme (ENP) merkers is dit bevind dat ongeveer 10% tot 27% van die H. midae genoom moontlik beïnvloed word deur seleksie. Met die gebruik van loki onder seleksie tydens die ontleding van populasie differensiasie (bv. AMOVA, faktoriaal korrespondensie analise en genetiese afstand ramings) was daar 'n merkbare toename in genetiese divergensie tussen wilde- en gekweekte populasies (veral wanneer mikrosatelliet loki gebruik is) en onder die populasies vanuit verskillende geografiese gebiede (veral ondersteun deur die ENP loki). Die verskille in die populasie groeperings soos uitgelig deur die mikrosatelliet- en ENP-merkers kan waarskynlik toegeskryf word aan die genomiese verspreiding van die onderskeie loki: Die ENP-merkers is ontwikkel vanaf uitgedrukte volgorde merker (UVM) volgordes en daarom verteenwoordig dit meestal proteïen strukturele veranderinge, terwyl mikrosatelliet merkers eerder in regulatoriese motiewe geleë is. Die resultate van hierdie studie steun dus vorige waarnemings, maar meer belangrik, het dit getoon dat seleksie ‘n betekenisvolle faktor in populasie divergensie in beide wilde en gekweekte populasies is. In wilde populasies fasiliteer seleksie waarskynlik die aanpassing tot plaaslike omgewingstoestande terwyl seleksie onder die gekweekte populasies teweeggebring kan word as gevolg van aanpassing tot aanhouding, boerdery praktyke en kunsmatige seleksie. Daar is bewyse vir populasie bottelnekke in wilde- en gekweekte populasies; tog blyk langtermyn effektiewe populasiegroottes om redelik groot te wees. Onder die wilde populasies is egter gevind dat kort-termyn populasiegroottes klein kan wees, waarskynlik as gevolg van differensiële broeikoerse onder reproduktiewe diere. Dit het tot gevolg dat daar beduidende fluktuasies is in temporale genetiese diversiteit. Die resultate dui daarop dat kontak tussen wilde en gekweekte perlemoen tot 'n minimum beperk moet word om enige nadelige effekte weens uitteling depressie te voorkom. Verder, met betrekking tot bewaring, is ‘n klem op die handhawing van aangepaste genetiese diversitiet dalk geregverdig. Voortgesette genetiese monitering word aanbeveel vir beide wilde- en gekweekte perlemoen populasies ter wille van die optimale bestuur van die perlemoen hulpbron vir beide bewaring en kommersiële lewensvatbaarheid en volhoubaarheid.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/79895
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