Die koloniale manifestasie van die Neo-Gotiese kerkboustyl op die Tuinroete van Suid-Afrika

De Swardt, Ignatius P. (2013-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: During the 12th century the Ab Suger, a church leader from near Paris in France, initiated a new approach to church architecture, the Gothic style. He diverted from the existing traditions and utilized pointed arches as one of the basic components of the new style. Pointed arches, unlike normal arches, distribute load-carrying weight not only downwards, as normal arches do, but also sideways. Strategically placed flying buttresses can help neutralize the thrust to the sides and reduce the weight on walls. Walls no longer had to be massive and it became possible to utilize big parts of the walls for windows, which were filled with brightly coloured glass. The style deliberately made use of height and enclosed spaces as a design element, to an extent unknown until that time. For some four centuries cathedrals in this style were built all over Europe, before the style was replaced with the coming of the Renaissance. The 19th century saw the coming of a style of Gothic Revival. New building materials had become available and there were fundamental differences between the original Gothic style and the Neo-Gothic (or Gothic Revival) style. In some instances elements of the original style lost their functions and were applied in a purely decorative function in the Gothic Revival style. With the colonization of Africa, the Neo-Gothic style came to South Africa. It took root locally and became part of South African church architecture. Local conditions required that some adaptations be made and several varieties of the Neo-Gothic style became part of the South African architectural landscape. Many church buildings were constructed in South Africa in this style during the last century and a half. The ones older than sixty years enjoy some measure of protection under current legislation relating to heritage conservation. It became evident that within the variety of Neo-Gothic idioms a number of churches have become so simplified that only some characteristics of the style have remained. Throughout the study it was indicated how the significance of a building and its architectural style also impact on the non-material culture of a community.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gedurende die 12de eeu het ab Suger, ‘n kerkleier van naby Parys in Frankryk, met ‘n nuwe benadering tot kerkargitektuur na vore gekom wat later as die Gotiese styl sou bekend staan. Hy het afgewyk van bestaande tradisies en gebruike in verband met kerkargitektuur. Deur die aanwending van spitsboë is die afwaartse druk van ‘n kerk se dak gedeeltelik na buite verplaas, in plek van alles na onder. Strategies geplaasde boogstutte het die sywaartse druk geneutraliseer. Hierdie boumetode is saam met die gebruik van geribde gewelwe gebruik om die druk in so ‘n mate van symure af te haal dat die mure nie meer dik en sterk moes wees nie en dit moontlik was om groot dele van die mure met vensters van gekleurde glas te vul. Die nuwe styl het ingeslote ruimtes en hoë gewelwe gehad soos die Middeleeuse mens nog nie vantevore geken het nie. Vir sowat vier eeue lank het katedrale in dié styl oral oor Europa opgeskiet, totdat dit met die koms van die Renaissance deur ander style vervang is. In die 19de eeu het daar ‘n herlewing in die Gotiese styl gekom. Beter boumateriale was beskikbaar en die Gotiese Herlewingstyl het in sommige opsigte groot verskille met die oorspronklike getoon. Van die Gotiese boustyl se komponente is aangepas om totaal ander funksies te vervul. Verskeie aspekte van die Gotiese styl is slegs behou as versiering. Met die kolonisasie van Afrika het die Gotiese Herlewingstyl na Suid-Afrika gekom. Die styl het posgevat en versprei in Suid-Afrika maar plaaslike omstandighede het aanpassings daarvan genoodsaak en etlike variasies op die Neo-Gotiese tema het na vore gekom. ‘n Groot aantal kerke is in die afgelope anderhalf eeu in Suid-Afrika in hierdie styl gebou. Sommiges daarvan geniet ‘n mate van beskerming ingevolge Suid-Afrika se bewaringswetgewing. Hierdie studie fokus op kerkgeboue met Neo-Gotiese stylkenmerke in ‘n bepaalde geografiese gebied in Suid-Afrika. Daar is bevind dat van die variasies op die Neo-Gotiese styl so vereenvoudig het, dat daar slegs enkele stylkenmerke by hulle oorgebly het. Deurgaans is aangedui op watter wyse die betekenis van die kerkgebou en die styl daarvan ook die nie-tasbare kultuur van ‘n gemeenskap geraak het.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/79867
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