Grape-seed extract (oligomeric proanthocyanidin) or N-acetylcysteine antioxidant supplementation several days before and after an acute bout of plyometric exercise

Delport, Chris J. (2013-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis aims to determine whether supplementation with a grape-seed derived antioxidant, oligomeric proanthocyanidin (PCO) or the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may prove beneficial as treatment for exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in athletes. In this double-blind cohort study, 21 healthy, uninjured male rugby-players in mid-season training phase, aged between 18 and 25 years were randomly divided into three treatment groups. Participants received 210 mg PCO, NAC or placebo treatment for 9 consecutive days. The study comprised a 6-day wash-out period (protocol days: -12 to -7), followed by a 6-day supplement loading period (protocol days: -6 to -1) a plyometric exercise intervention (protocol day 0) and continued supplementation for 2 days (protocol days: 1 to 2). The exercise intervention comprised 15 sets of 10 near maximal, vertical plyometric squat jumps. Blood samples and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) scores were collected on protocol days: -6, 0, 1 and 2. Assessments included serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) concentrations over time as well as a differential circulating leukocyte count (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils). Data analysis of CK activity revealed no significant differences between groups. However, PCO treatment prevented a significant peak in the CK response at 24 h (as seen in the placebo and NAC groups) when compared to baseline, pre and post readings (p<0.05). NAC supplementation significantly improved serum ORAC after the exercise intervention. By 48 h, serum ORAC had improved significantly from readings taken immediately post exercise (p<0.05) only in the NAC group. For all groups, absolute neutrophil counts peaked at 6 h post exercise from baseline or pre readings (p<0.05). In both NAC and placebo treated groups, neutrophil counts had decreased significantly in circulation by 24 h post exercise from the 6 h time-point (p<0.05). However, neutrophil counts only reached significantly lower levels by 48 h post exercise (p<0.05) in the group supplemented with PCO. The monocyte count also peaked significantly at 6 h post exercise when compared with other time-points before and after the exercise intervention (p<0.05) in all treatment groups. Neither antioxidant treatment significantly altered the responses of other leukocyte sub-populations, MDA or sVCAM-1 concentrations where main effects of plyometric exercise was evident. Although not statistically significant, a trend toward diminished sVCAM-1 expression with either antioxidant supplementation was apparent. These findings suggest that PCO supplementation (210mg/d) which includes a 7 day loading period may diminish plyometric EIMD by limiting (but not completely inhibiting) the neutrophil response. Secondary muscle damage may be prevented by partially blunting neutrophil infiltration, rather than only quenching free radicals released during the neutrophil oxidative burst. Furthermore, the finding that NAC supplementation improves serum ORAC only after exercise may provide added benefit when administered in combination with PCO.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierde tesis is daarop gerig om vas te stel of aanvulling met ‘n druifsaadekstrak (DSE) gederiveerde antioksidant: pro-antosianiedoliese oligomeer (PSO), of die glutathione voorloopermolekule, N-asetielsistien (NAS) voordelig beskou kan word as behandeling vir atlete onderhewig aan spierskade veroorsaak deur oefening. Gedurende hierdie dubbelblinde kohort studie is 21 gesonde, manlike rugbyspelers sonder beserings tussen die ouderdom van 18 en 25 jaar in middel-seison fase ewekansig in drie behandelingsgroepe verdeel. Deelneemers het elk 210 mg PSO, NAS of placebo-aanvulling geneem vir nege agtereenvolgende dae. Die studie het bestaan uit ‘n 6-dag uitwasperiode (protokoldae: -12 tot -7), as ook ‘n 6-dag aanvullings periode (protokoldae: -6 tot -1), gevolg deur ‘n pliometriese oefeningsintervensie (protokol dag 0) en verdere aanvulling tot en met 2 dae na die oefening (protokol dae: 1 tot 2). Die oefeningsintervensie het 15 stelle van 10 naastenby maksimale, vertikale pliometriese hurkspronge behels. Bloedmonsters en vertraagde aanvang spierseerheid (VAS) tellings is op protokoldae: -6, 0, 1 en 2 geneem. Analiese het serum kreatien kinase (KK) aktiwiteit, suurstof radikaal absorpsie kapasiteit (SRAK), Malondialdahied (MDA) en oplospare vaskulêresel adhesie molekule-1 (oVAM-1) konsentrasie bepalings asook ‘n differentiële sirkulerende leukosiet seltelling ingesluit. KK aktiewiteit het geen merkwaardige verskil tussen groepe getoon nie. PSO aanvulling het wel gelei tot die voorkoming van ‘n merkwaardige piek in die KK response soos in die placebo en NAC behandelde groepe bevind is by die 24 h tydspunt in vergelyking met basislyn-, voor- en na-oefeningslesings (p<0.05). NAS het ‘n merkwaardige verbetering in serum SRAK getoon, maar eers teen 48 h na oefening. Slegs die NAS behandelde groep het op hierdie tydspunt ‘n betekenisvolle verbetering in SRAK getoon in vergelyking met lesings direk na oefening (p<0.05). Vir alle groepe is ‘n betekenisvolle toename in absolute neutrophiltellings waargeneem 6 h na oefening in vergelyking met basislyn- en vooroefeningslesings (p<0.05). Beide NAS en placebo-behandelde groepe het ‘n betekenisvolle afname in neutrophiltellings teen 24 h na oefening getoon in vergelyking met die 6 h tydspunt (p<0.05) maar met die PSO-behandelde groep word hierde afname eers teen 48 h waargeneem (p<0.05). Monosiettellings het in alle groepe 6 h na oefening ‘n betekinsvolle piek getoon (p<0.05). Waar slegs die hoofeffek van die pliometriese oefening betekenisvol was, het nie een van die twee antioksidant aanvullings ‘n merkwaardige verandering aan die respons van ander leukosiet sub-populasies, MDA of oVAM-1 konsentrasies getoon nie. Al kon statistiese beduidenheid nie bewys word nie, wil dit blyk dat ‘n verminderde oVAM-1 uitdrukking onstaan het in die geval van beide antioksidant-behandelde groepe. Tesame stel hierdie bevindinge voor dat PSO toediening (210mg/d) insluitende ‘n 7-dag aanvullingsperiode die vermoë verleen om die neutrophielrespons gedeeltelik te onderdruk (sonder om dit heeltemal te inhibeer) en sodoende spierskade verminder. Dus word verdere spierskade moontlik verlaag deur die voorkoming van neutrophil weefsel infiltrasie eerder as verwydering van reaktiewe spesies wat vrygestel word tydens oefening. Die bevinding dat NAS aanvulling serum SRAK eers na oefening merkwaardig verbeter, kan as voordelig beskou word, veral wanneer toegedien in samewerking met PSO om verdere spierskade te voorkom en herstelling vinniger te bewerkstellig.

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