Alternating hetero-arm copolymer molecular brushes as scaffolds for inorganic nano-wires

Hadasha, Waled Ajili (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study describes the synthesis and self-assembly of hetero-arm molecular brushes (hetero-arm MBs). These MBs consist of two polymeric side chains (SCs) of different natures, alternatingly distributed along the main chain (backbone). Two different types of hetero-arm MBs were prepared: first, alternating amphiphlic hetero-arm MBs (AMBs), and second, alternating hetero-arm MBs (AHMBs). Hetero-arm AMBs were synthesized via two strategies: (I) via a combination of “grafting through” and “grafting onto”, and (II) via “grafting through”. In approach (I), poly[vinyl benzyl (polyethylene glycol)-alt-N-alkyl-maleimide)] (poly[VB-(PEG12)-alt-N-(CnH2n+1)-MI]) was prepared via radical copolymerization of vinyl benzyl-terminated polyethylene glycol (VB-PEG12) with maleic anhydride (MAnh) (grafting through), which produces graft copolymers with PEG SCs and reactive succinic anhydride repeat units alternatingly distributed along the backbone. These graft copolymers were then modified by nucleophilic substitution (imidization) with alkyl amines (CnH2n+1-NH2) on the succinic anhydride residues (grafting onto). Three different primary amines possessing different alkyl chain lengths (n = 4, 12 and 16) were used in the modification process. In this way, hetero-arm AMBs with different hydrophilic to hydrophobic ratios were obtained. In approach (II), similar hetero-arm AMBs were prepared in a one-step grafting through approach. In this case, poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(CnH2n+1)-MI] (n = 10, 16 and 20) was prepared via radical copolymerization of VB-PEG17 with N-dodecylmaleimide, N-hexadecylmaleimide and N-icosylmaleimide. Following the synthesis step, self-assembly of these hetero-arm AMBs in arm-selective solvents was investigated in relation to the alkyl chain length. The morphology of the obtained assemblies was characterized by Field Emission gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fluorescence Microscopy (a fluorescent dye was encapsulated). Cylindrical-like aggregates, length 10 μm and diameter ~ 250 nm, were obtained upon hetero-arm AMBs self-assembly. The second type of hetero-arm MBs was hetero-arm AHMBs, in which the SCs consist of PEG and poly(N,N-dimethylamino-ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). These hetero-arm AHMBs were prepared via a combination of grafting through and grafting from approaches. In this case, poly[vinyl benzyl-(polyethylene glycol)-alt-N-(poly(N,N-dimethylamino-ethyl methacrylate) maleimide] (poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(PDMAEMA)-MI) was prepared in the following steps: (1) alternating poly[vinyl benzyl-(polyethylene glycol)-alt-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide] (poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(HPh)-MI]) was synthesized via radical copolymerization of VB-PEG17 with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide (N-HPhMI). (grafting through), (2) the hydroxyl sites were esterified with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide to afford poly [vinyl benzyl-(polyethylene glycol)-alt-N-(4-(2-bromobutyryloxy)phenyl) maleimide] (poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(BrPh)-MI]) (macroinitiator) and (3) an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) reaction of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) was initiated from the obtained macroinitiator. This approach afforded poly[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(PDMAEMA)-MI] hetero-arm AHMBs with two water soluble SCs; however, one is water soluble at all pHs and temperatures (i.e. PEG), while the other is a pH- and temperature-sensitive polymer (i.e. PDMAEMA). Initial attempts were made to fabricate cylindrical organo/silica hybrid materials based on these AMHBs as the organic template and tetra-ethylorthosilicate as the silica precursor. Preliminary results indicate the formation of silica nano-wires, ~ 8 μm in length and ~45 nm in diameter. The self-assembly behavior of these AHMBs in water at a temperature above the lower critical solution temperature of PDMAEMA (> 55 °C) was also investigated. Fibril morphology (~ 30 nm in diameter) was observed. This study addresses initial attempts to fabricate organic/inorganic hybrid materials with controlled size and morphologies via densely grafted hetero-arm molecular brushes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie beskryf die sintese en selfsamestelling van prototipe molekulêre borsels (prototipe MBs). Hierdie MBs bestaan uit twee polimeriese sykettings (SKs) van verskillende aard wat afwisselend langs die hoofketting (ruggraat) voorkom. Twee verskillende tipes van die prototipe MBs is gesintetiseer: eerstens, afwisselende amfifiliese prototipe MBs (AMBs), en tweedens, afwisselende hetero-arm prototipe MBs (AHMBs). Prototipe AMBs is gesintetiseer d.m.v. twee strategieë: (I) deur 'n kombinasie van „enting deur‟ en „enting aan‟ benaderings, en (II) deur middel van „n „enting deur‟ benadering. In benadering (I) is poli[vinielbensiel(poliëtileenglikol)-alt-N-alkiel-maleïenamied)] (poli[VB-(PEG12)-alt-N-(CnH2n+1)-MI]) gesintetiseer deur radikaalkopolimerisasie van vinielbensiel-beëindigde-poliëtileenglikol (VB-PEG12) met maleïenanhidried („enting deur‟) wat entkopolimere produseer met PEG SKs en reaktiewe suksienanhidried herhaaleenhede wat afwisselend langs die ruggraat versprei is. Daarna is die entkopolimere gewysig d.m.v. nukleofiliese substitusie (imiedisering) met alkielamiene (CnH2n+1-NH2) op die oorblywende suksienanhidried („enting op‟). Drie verskillende primêre amiene met verskillende alkielkettinglengtes (n = 4, 12 en 16) is gebruik vir die wysigingsproses. So is prototipe AMBs met verskillende hidrofiliese tot hidrofobiese verhoudings verkry. In benadering (II) is soortgelyke prototipe AMBs gesintetiseer in 'n een-stap „enting deur‟ benadering. In hierdie geval is poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(CnH2n+1)-MI] (n = 10, 16 en 20) gesintetiseer d.m.v. radikaalkopolimerisasie van VB-PEG17 met N-dodesiel maleïenamied, N-heksadesiel maleïenamied en N-ikosiel maleïenamied. Na afloop van die sintese stap is die selfsamestelling van hierdie prototipe AMBs in spesifieke oplosmiddels in verhouding tot die alkielkettinglengtes ondersoek. Die morfologie van die versamelings is gekarakteriseer deur veld-emissie-geweer-(Eng: field emission gun-)-skandeerelektronmikroskopie (FE-SEM), transmissie-elektronmikroskopie (TEM) en fluoresserende mikroskopie („n fluoresserende kleurstof is ingesluit). Silinderagtige versamelings (lengtes ~10 μm en deursnee ~250 nm) is deur die selfsamestelling van prototipe AMBs verkry. Die tweede soort prototipe MBs is prototipe AHMB, waarin die SKs uit PEG en poli(N,N-dimetielaminoetiel metakrilaat) (PDMAEMA) bestaan. Hierdie prototipe AHMBs is d.m.v. 'n kombinasie van „enting deur‟ en „enting van‟ benaderings gesintetiseer. In hierdie geval is poli[vinielbensiel-(poliëtileenglikol)-alt-N-(poli(N,N-dimetielaminoetiel metakrilaat) maleïenamied] (poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(PDMAEMA)-MI) gesintetiseer deur van die volgende stappe gebruik te maak: (1) sintese van afwisselende poli[vinielbensiel-(poliëtileenglikol)-alt-N-(4-hidroksifeniel) maleïenamied] (poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(HPh) -MI) deur midel van radikaalkopolimerisasie van VB-PEG17 met N-(4-hidroksifeniel) maleïenamied (N-HPhMI) („enting deur‟), (2) esterifikasie van die hidroksielgroepe met 2-bromoisobutiriel bromied om poli[vinielbensiel-(poliëtileenglikol)-alt-N-(4-(2-bromobutirieloksi) feniel) maleïenamied] (poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(BrPh)-MI]) (makro-afsetter) te berei, en (3) die atoomoordrag-radikaalpolimerisasie reaksie van 2-(N,N-dimetielamino)etiel metakrilaat (DMAEMA) wat begin is vanaf die gevormde makro-afsetter. Hierdie benadering gee poli[VB-(PEG17)-alt-N-(PDMAEMA)-MI] prototipe AHMBs met twee wateroplosbare SKs, waarvan een wateroplosbaar is by alle pHs en temperature (d.w.s. PEG), terwyl die ander tipe SK „n pH- en temperatuur-sensitiewe polimeer is (d.w.s. PDMAEMA). Aanvanklike pogings is aangewend om silindriese organo/silika hibriedmateriale te sintetiseer, gebaseer op hierdie AHMBs as die organiese segment en tetraëtielortosilikaat as die silika voorloper. Die voorlopige resultate dui op die vorming van silikananodrade, lengte ~8 μm en deursnit ~45 nm. Die selfsamestellingsgedrag van hierdie AHMBs is ook in water ondersoek by 'n temperatuur hoër as die laer kritieke oplossingstemperatuur van PDMAEMA (> 55 °C). „n Draadagtige morfologie (deursnit ~30 nm) is waargeneem. Hierdie studie beskryf aanvanklike pogings om organiese–anorganiese hibriedmateriale met beheerde groottes en morfologieë via dig-geënte hetero-arm molekulêre borsels te vervaardig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/79841
This item appears in the following collections: