The pharmacokinetic behaviour of hypoxoside taken orally by patients with lung cancer in a phase I trial
CITATION: Albrecht, C. F. et al. 1995. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of hypoxoside taken orally by patients with lung cancer in a phase I trial. South African Medical Journal, 85:861-865.
The original publication is available at http://www.samj.org.za
Objective. To study the pharmacokinetic behaviour of hypoxoside taken orally by 24 patients with lung cancer. Design. Randomised open study with three single doses of 1 600, 2 400 and 3 200 mg standardised Hypoxis plant extract (200 mg capsules) and a multiple-dose. study on the first 6 patients taking 4 capsules 3 times daily for 11 days. Participants and setting. Patients with histologically proven squamous, large-cell or adenocarcinoma were hospitalised at the Radiation Oncology Ward, Karl Bremer Hospital, Bellville, W Cape. Methods. Blood was drawn at regular intervals up to 75 hours after single doses and the concentrations of metabolites of the aglucone of hypoxoside, rooperol, were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography method. For the multiple-dose study blood was drawn before the first dose each day. Concentration-time relationships were analysed according to a conventional single open-compartment model and also by using the NONMEM digital computer programme. Results. Neither hypoxoside nor rooperol appear in circulation. This is due to complete phase II biotransformation to diglucuronide, disulphate and mixed glucuronide-sulphate metabolites, of which the latter is the major component. Considerable interpatient variation in concentration-time relationships was found in the singledose studies. It was due to an active enterohepatic recirculation in some patients and a distinct lag phase in others together with zero-order rate of formation of rooperol in the colon. Computer modelling indicated a single open-compartment model in which the mass of the patient did not influence volume of distribution and clearance because formation of the metabolites is dependent on the metabolising capacity of the patient. However, the elimination of the metabolites follows first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging from 50 hours for the major metabolite to 20 hours for the two minor metabolites. Multiple-dose studies also showed large interpatient variation. Conclusion. In order to reach metabolite levels near 100 μg/ml, which have been shown to be tumouricidal after enzymatic deconjugation to rooperol, maintenance doses need to be individualised for each patient. For most patients, however, a daily dose of 2 400 mg was sufficient.