A comparison of the metabolic effects of captopril and atenolol on glucose, insulin and lipoproteins in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension
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The metabolic effects of captopril 25 mg twice daily and atenolol 50 mg daily on glucose, insulin and lipids were compared in 83 otherwise healthy mild-to-moderate hypertensives between the ages of 25 and 60 years in a randomised double-blind trial. Hourly glucose and insulin levels were measured during a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Lipid profiles including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, HDL2, HDL3, triglycerides, apoprotein (Apo)A1, ApoB, and Apo(a) were obtained before and after the treatment period. Blood pressure decreased significantly and equivalently in both treatment groups. The glucose and insulin levels and glucose x insulin product at 2 hours after the glucose load increased after 12 weeks of treatment with atenolol compared with the baseline values, but these parameters all decreased after the treatment period with captopril compared with their baseline values. These results indicate an improvement in insulin sensitivity with captopril and a deterioration with atenolol. HDL-cholesterol and HDL, decreased in the atenolol group but increased in the captopril group. We conclude that captopril has more favourable effects than atenolol on glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism in the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension.
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