The relationship between intimate partner violence, HIV-related stigma, social support, and mental health among people living with HIV

Breet, Elsie-Marie (2012-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Global estimates show that sub-Saharan Africa has the largest portion of HIV cases with South Africa having more people living with HIV than any other country in the world. Moreover, studies have shown a high incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among people living with HIV. IPV has been shown to be associated with mental health problems. Considerable empirical studies have demonstrated that HIV is a highly stigmatized disease. In addition, HIV-related stigma has also been shown to be a risk factor for mental health problems among persons living with HIV. However, no empirical studies have examined the combined effect of IPV and HIV-related stigma on mental health. This thesis builds on the existing body of research by examining to what extent the linear combination of IPV (timing and frequency) and HIV related stigma explained variation in symptoms of common mental health disorders in both men and women living with HIV. In addition, theoretical and empirical studies have suggested that social support may serve as a protective factor in the relationship between IPV, HIV-related stigma, and mental health. Yet, despite the increasing attention, no known studies have focused on the mediating or moderating role of social support in the relationship between IPV or HIV-related stigma, and mental health. This thesis examined the extent to which social support played a mediating or moderating role in these relationships. The study used a cross-sectional research design to study a convenience sample of 210 people living with HIV in three peri-urban areas in the Western Cape, South Africa. Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires that assessed IPV (timing and frequency), HIV-related stigma, social support, and symptoms of common mental health. The results from the hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the linear combination of psychological aggression frequency and HIV related stigma explained a significant portion of the variance in symptoms of depression. Likewise, both physical assault timing and psychological aggression timing combined with HIV-related stigma explained a significant portion of variance in symptoms of depression. Psychological aggression timing combined with HIV-related stigma significantly explained variance in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results from the product-term regression analyses indicated that social support played a mediating role in the relationship between HIV-related stigma and symptoms of PTSD, but not depression. Social support did not moderate the relationship between HIV-related stigma and symptoms of common mental health disorders. In conclusion, the combination of IPV (physical assault and psychological aggression) and HIV-related stigma explained a significant portion of the variance in symptoms of common mental health disorders. Future research is needed for a better understanding of these relationships. A longitudinal experimental design is recommended in order to explore the direction of these relationships and to examine the context in which the IPV, HIV-related stigma, and social support is experienced.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wêreldwye beramings toon dat sub-Sahara Afrika die grootste gedeelte van HIV gevalle te wêreld het, terwyl Suid-Afrika meer mense het wat met MIV leef as enige ander land in die wêreld. Verder het studies getoon dat daar 'n hoë voorkoms van intiemepaargeweld (IPV) is onder mense wat met MIV leef. Daar is al getoon dat IPV verband hou met geestelike probleme. Aansienlike empiriese studies het getoon dat MIV 'n hoogs gestigmatiseer siekte is. Daarbenewens, is daar getoon dat MIV-verwante stigma 'n risiko faktor is vir geestelike probleme onder persone wat leef met MIV. Daar is egter geen empiriese studies wat die gekombineerde effek van IPV en MIV-verwante stigma op geestesgesondheid ondersoek nie. Hierdie tesis bou voort op die bestaande navorsing deur te ondersoek tot watter mate die lineêre kombinasie van IPV (tydsberekening en frekwensie) en MIV-verwante stigma variasie in die simptome van algemene geestesgesondheid afwykings verduidelik in beide mans en vroue wat met MIV leef. Daarbenewens, het teoretiese en empiriese studies voorgestel dat sosiale ondersteuning kan dien as 'n beskermende faktor in die verhouding tussen IPV, MIV-verwante stigma, en geestesgesondheid. Tog, ten spyte van die toenemende aandag, het daar al geen studies gefokus op die bemiddelende of modererende rol van sosiale ondersteuning in die verhouding tussen IPV of MIV-verwante stigma, en geestesgesondheid. Hierdie tesis ondersoek die mate waarin sosiale ondersteuning 'n bemiddelende of modererende rol speel in hierdie verhoudings. Die studie het 'n deursnee-navorsing ontwerp gebruik om 'n gerieflikheidsteekproef van 210 mense wat met MIV leef in drie peri-stedelike gebiede in die Wes-Kaap, Suid-Afrika te bestudeer. Deelnemers het 'n battery van self-verslag vraelyste voltooi wat IPV (tydsberekening en frekwensie), MIV-verwante stigma, sosiale ondersteuning, en simptome van algemene geestesgesondheid geassesseer het. Die resultate van die hiërargiese meervoudige regressie-analise het getoon dat die lineêre kombinasie van sielkundige aggressie frekwensie en MIV-verwante stigma 'n beduidende deel van die variansie in simptome van depressie verduidelik. Net so, het beide fisiese aanranding tydsberekening en sielkundige aggressie tydsberekening gekombineer met MIV-verwante stigma 'n beduidende deel van die variansie in simptome van depressie verduidelik. Sielkundige aggressie tydsberekening gekombineer met MIV-verwante stigma het „n beduidende variansie in simptome van post-traumatiese stresversteuring (PTSV) verduidelik. Die resultate van die produk-term regressie-analises het aangedui dat sosiale ondersteuning 'n bemiddelende rol speel in die verhouding tussen MIV-verwante stigma en simptome van PTSV, maar nie depressie nie. Sosiale ondersteuning het nie die verhouding tussen MIV-verwante stigma en simptome van algemene geestesgesondheid versteurings modereer nie. Ten slotte, die kombinasie van IPV (fisiese aanranding en sielkundige aggressie) en MIV-verwante stigma het 'n beduidende deel van die variansie in simptome van algemene geestesgesondheid versteurings verduidelik. Toekomstige navorsing is nodig vir 'n beter begrip van hierdie verhoudings. 'n Longitudinale eksperimentele ontwerp word aanbeveel om die rigting van hierdie verhoudings te verken en die konteks waarin die IPV, MIV-verwante stigma en sosiale ondersteuning ervaar is te ondersoek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71951
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