An in vitro study to assess three different sterilising methods for infant feeding cups and bottles

Maloy, Natasha Quinta (2012-12)

Thesis (MCurr)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background Diarrhoea (frequent, loose, watery stools) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality globally and affects mainly infants and children under the age of five years. Unhygienic feeding practices and feeding utensils contribute to diarrhoeal incidences. The most common causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide are infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria and parasites Aim The aim of the study was to investigate which out of three particular sterilising methods is the most effective for sterilising feeding bottles and cups. Methods An experimental quantitative approach was most appropriate for the current study. An in vitro experimental study with a descriptive design was utilised under controlled laboratory conditions. The study was conducted at the University of the Western Cape (UWC) in April 2009. Results The sample size consisted of 16 samples, of which two were used for each method of sterilisation, namely: two (2) bottles and two (2) cups for sunlight; two (2) bottles and two (2) cups for Milton™; two (2) bottles and two (2) cups for Sunlight™ dishwashing liquid; and control utensils that consisted of two (2) bottles and two (2) cups. The target population for the study comprised infant feeding bottles and feeding cups. The analysis for the APC cultures that was compared in the cups vs. bottles, in order to see whether there was a significant difference between the mean bacteria counts, shows that the average bacteria count (on the ln scale) was 6 cfu/ml and 9 cfu/ml for the cups and bottles, respectively. The t-value was -1.17524. As the ρ-value was 0.2595, no significant difference was found between the cups and bottles. The E. coli cultures were compared in the cups vs. bottles to see whether there was a significant difference between the mean bacteria counts. The results show that the average bacteria count (on the ln scale) was 7 cfu/ml and 7.6 cfu/ml for cups and bottles, respectively. The t-value was -0.211902. The ρ-value was 0.835237, and therefore there was no significant difference between cups and bottles. Conclusion The current study showed no significant difference between the sterilising methods or between the use of either bottles or cups. Therefore, a study with a larger sample size is recommended for further research. Recommendations The researcher recommends that future researchers conduct broader studies, with a larger sample size on the topic. Studies with a larger sample size enabled the real differences to be large enough to be significant. The use of sunlight is recommended as a sterilisation method for infant feeding utensils, as it is both time- and cost-effective. Sunlight is an inexpensive and readily available method of sterilisation; therefore, it can be used by relatively under resourced socio-economic communities.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond Diarree (gereelde, los, waterige stoelgang) is een van die hoofoorsake van morbiditeit en sterflikheid wêreldwyd en affekteer hoofsaaklik suigelinge en kinders onder die ouderdom van vyf jaar. Onhigiëniese voedingspraktyke en -gereedskap dra by tot die voorkoms van diarree-gevalle. Die mees algemene oorsake van akute gastroënteritus wêreldwyd word veroorsaak deur aansteeklike agente soos virusse, bakterieë en parasiete. Doel Die doel van hierdie studie is om ondersoek te doen na watter van die drie bepaalde steriliseringsmetodes die mees effektiewe is vir die sterilisering van bottels en koppies. Metodes ’n Eksperimentele kwantitatiewe benadering is die mees geskikte een vir die huidige studie. ’n In vitro-eksperimentele studie met ’n deskriptiewe ontwerp is onder gekontroleerde laboratorium omstandighede aangewend. Die studie is by die Universitet van die Wes-Kaap (UWK) in April 2009 uitgevoer. Resultate Die steekproefgroote het bestaan uit 16 monsters waarvan twee gebruik is vir elke steriliseringsmetode, naamlik: twee (2) bottels en twee (2) koppies vir sonlig; twee (2) bottels en twee (2) koppies vir Milton™; twee (2) bottels en twee (2) koppies vir Sunlight™ skottelgoedopwasmiddel; en kontrole gereedskap wat bestaan het uit twee (2) bottels en twee (2) koppies. Die teikenbevolking vir die studie het bestaan uit voedingsbottels en -koppies vir suigelinge. Die analise vir die APC-kulture wat vergelyk is in die koppies vs. bottels om te bepaal of daar ’n beduidende verskil is tussen die gemiddelde bakterie-tellings, toon dat die gemiddelde bakterie-telling (op die In-skaal) is 6 cfu/ml en 9 cfu/ml vir die koppies en bottels respektiewelik. Die t-waarde is -1.17524. Aangesien die p-waarde 0.2595 is, is daar geen beduidende verskil gevind tussen die koppies en die bottels nie. Die E. coli-kulture is vergelyk in die koppies vs. bottels om te bepaal of daar ’n beduidende verskil tussen die gemiddelde bakterie-tellings is. Die uitslae wys dat die gemiddelde bakterie-telling (op die In-skaal) is 7cfu/ml en 7.6 cfu/ml vir koppies en bottels respektiewelik. Die t-waarde is -0.211902. Die p-waarde is 0.835237 en dus is daar geen beduidende verskil tussen koppies en bottels nie. Gevolgtrekking Die huidige studie toon dat daar geen beduidende verskil tussen die steriliseringsmetodes of tussen die gebruik van of bottels of koppies is nie. Dus, ’n studie met ’n groter steekproefgrootte word aanbeveel vir toekomstige navorsing. Aanbevelings Die navorser beveel aan dat toekomstige navorsers meer omvattende studies met ’n groter steekproefgrootte oor die onderwerp uitvoer. Studies met ’n groter steekproefgrootte sal veroorsaak dat die werklike verskille vanweë hul grootte genoegsaam sal wees, om beduidend te wees. Die gebruik van sonlig as ’n steriliseringsmetode vir die gereedskap van suigelinge word aanbeveel, aangesen dit beide tyd- en kostebesparend is. Sonlig is ’n goedkoop en maklik verkrygbare metode van sterilisasie; dus kan dit gebruik word deur gemeenskappe wat nie oor die nodige middele beskik nie, vanweë hul sosio-ekonomiese situasies.

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