Impact of season on the composition and quality of male and female blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) muscles

Neethling, Jeannine (2012-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of season on the composition and quality of male and female blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) muscles (Longissimus dorsi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Infraspinatus and Supraspinatus). The latter was quantified on the chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat and ash contents), fatty acid profile, mineral composition and physical attributes (pH, colour, drip and cooking loss, water holding capacity and tenderness) of the selected muscles. All of the blesbok muscles had higher (p<0.01) mean protein contents (20.6 g.100 g-1 to 23.1 g.100 g-1) when the plane of nutrition was believed to be higher (spring of 2009). A strong negative correlation (r = – 0.82; p<0.01) existed between the moisture and protein contents of the blesbok muscles. The Longissimus dorsi muscle had the highest (p<0.01) mean intramuscular fat content (3.4 g.100 g-1) when the plane of nutrition was higher. The chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi, Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus and forequarter muscles (Infraspinatus and Supraspinatus) was affected least by the seasonal differences in the plane of nutrition and activity levels of the blesbok at the study area. However, season had a larger impact on the chemical composition of the Semimembranosus muscle. Season did not have a significant impact on the fatty acid profile of blesbok muscles, but the difference in the fatty acid profiles between male and female muscles was significant. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) bi-plot indicated that female blesbok muscles were associated with a higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) and mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content. Male blesbok muscles had higher (p<0.01) proportions of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (40.15 ± 5.39) and polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (P:S) (0.85 ± 0.18), in comparison to female muscles (27.18 ± 8.04 and 0.54 ± 0.20, respectively). Differences in the anatomical locations of the selected blesbok muscles furthermore influenced the fatty acid profiles. The less active Longissimus dorsi muscle had higher (p<0.05) total PUFA (38.34 ± 8.62), total omega-6 (ω6) PUFA (34.46 ± 7.83), total ω3 PUFA (3.44 ± 0.84) and P:S (0.85 ± 0.24) contents, in comparison to the Infraspinatus muscle (28.96 ± 8.65, 26.23 ± 7.86, 2.31 ± 0.70 and 0.56 ± 0.19, respectively) and Supraspinatus muscle (28.85 ± 9.23, 26.05 ± 8.24, 2.28 ± 0.76 and 0.55 ± 0.21, respectively). The hindquarter muscles (Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus) had intermediate fatty acid content. Season had an impact on the calcium and zinc contents of blesbok muscles. The calcium content was higher (p<0.05) in the muscles of the animals harvested in spring (6.92 ± 1.94) compared to winter (5.61 ± 1.79). The zinc content was higher (p<0.05) in the muscles of male blesbok harvested in winter (4.04 ± 1.70) compared to spring (3.41 ± 1.67). The mineral composition was furthermore significantly different between the selected blesbok muscles. The Biceps femoris muscle had the highest (p<0.05) potassium (183.25 ± 12.79), phosphorus (180.21 ± 10.36) and magnesium (32.18 ± 1.72) content, while the sodium and calcium content was highest in the forequarter muscles. The Longissimus dorsi muscle had the highest (p<0.05) iron (3.67 ± 0.51), but significantly lower zinc content (1.63 ± 0.28), in comparison to the forequarter muscles. The pH value ≈24 h post mortem was higher (p<0.05) in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of the animals harvested in spring (5.60) compared to winter (5.54). The CIE a* (14.63 ± 0.86) and chroma (17.09 ± 0.63) values were higher (p<0.05) for winter than for male blesbok meat in spring (13.62 ± 1.08 and 16.10 ± 1.03, respectively). The latter values were also higher (p<0.05) for male compared to female (13.49 ± 0.88 and 16.22 ± 0.98) blesbok meat, at the end of the mating season (winter). The forequarter muscles had higher chroma values in comparison with the hindquarter muscles, which had higher (p<0.01) hue-angle values. Season had no influence (p<0.05) on the drip loss percentages and tenderness of blesbok muscles. The drip loss percentages were lowest (p<0.05) in the Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus muscles. The Infraspinatus and Supraspinatus muscles had the lowest (p<0.01) Warner Bratzler shear force values (20.89 ± 3.23 and 24.90 ± 5.35 N, respectively). Seasonal differences in the chemical composition of blesbok muscles were statistically significant. However, these differences were numerically small and it is therefore debatable whether they are of any biological relevance relating to human nutrition. The differences in the fatty acid profile and mineral composition as well as the physical meat quality attributes of blesbok muscles were more attributed to differences in the anatomical locations of the selected muscles, as opposed to the impact of season or gender.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die studie was om die impak van seisoen op die samestelling en kwaliteit van blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) spiere (Longissimus dorsi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Infraspinatus en Supraspinatus) te bepaal. Die seisoenale impak was gekwantifiseer op die chemiese samestelling (vog-, proteïen-, vet- en asinhoud), vetsuurprofiel, mineraal samestelling en fisiese eienskappe (pH, kleur, drup- en kookverlies, water houvermoë en taaiheid) van die geselekteerde spiere. Met ʼn hoër voedingspeil (lente 2009) het elkeen van die spiere gemiddeld ʼn hoër (p<0.01) proteïeninhoud (20.6 g.100 g-1 tot 23.1 g.100 g-1) gehad. ‘n Sterk negatiewe korrelasie (r = – 0.82; p<0.01) het bestaan tussen die vog- en proteïeninhoud van die blesbokspiere. Met ʼn hoër voedingspeil het die Longissimus dorsi spier die hoogste (p<0.01) gemiddelde intramuskulêre vetinhoud (3.4 g.100 g-1) gehad. Seisoenale verskille in die voedingspeil en aktiwiteitsvlakke van dié blesbokke het minimale verskille in die chemiese samestelling van die Longissimus dorsi, Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus en voorkwartspiere (Infraspinatus en Supraspinatus) tot gevolg gehad. Daar was wel seisoenale verskille in die chemiese samestelling van die Semimembranosus spier. Seisoen het nie ʼn beduidende invloed op die vetsuurprofiel van die blesbokspiere gehad nie, maar daar was wel beduidende (p<0.05) verskille tussen geslagte. Soos aangedui deur ʼn hoofkomponent-analise (PCA) bi-plot, was die spiere van die vroulike blesbokke meer geassosieer met hoër versadigde en mono-onversadigde vetsuursamestellings. Die spiere van die manlike diere het hoër (p<0.01) proporsies poli-onversadigde vetsure (PUFA) (40.15 ± 5.39) asook hoër poli-onversadigde tot versadigde vetsuur verhoudings (P:S) gehad (0.85 ± 0.18) in vergelyking met die spiere van die vroulike diere (onderskeidelik 27.18 ± 8.04 en 0.54 ± 0.20). Die vetsuurprofiel van blesbokspiere was ook beïnvloed deur die anatomiese ligging van die spiere. Die minder aktiewe Longissimus dorsi spier het ʼn hoër (p<0.05) totale PUFA (38.34 ± 8.62), totale omega-6 (ω6) PUFA (34.46 ± 7.83), totale ω3 PUFA (3.44 ± 0.84) en P:S (0.85 ± 0.24) inhoud gehad in vergelyking met die Infraspinatus spier (onderskeidelik 28.96 ± 8.65, 26.23 ± 7.86, 2.31 ± 0.70 en 0.56 ± 0.19) en Supraspinatus spier (onderskeidelik 28.85 ± 9.23, 26.05 ± 8.24, 2.28 ± 0.76 en 0.55 ± 0.21). Die agterkwartspiere (Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus en Semitendinosus) het intermediêre vetsuursamestellings gehad. Seisoen het ʼn invloed op die kalsium- en sinkinhoud van die blesbokspiere gehad. In die lente het die spiere gemiddeld ʼn hoër (p<0.05) kalsiuminhoud gehad (6.92 ± 1.94), in vergelyking met dié van winter (5.61 ± 1.79). Die manlike spiere van die blesbokke wat in winter geoes is, het weer ʼn hoër (p<0.05) sinkinhoud (4.04 ± 1.70) in vergelyking met dié van die lente (3.41 ± 1.67) gehad. Verder het die mineraalinhoud van die geselekteerde blesbokspiere betekenisvol van mekaar verskil. Die Biceps femoris spier het die hoogste (p<0.05) kalium- (183.25 ± 12.79), fosfor- (180.21 ± 10.36) en magnesiuminhoud (32.18 ± 1.72) gehad. Die natrium- en kalsiuminhoud was hoër in die voorkwartspiere. Die Longissimus dorsi spier het die hoogste (p<0.05) ysterinhoud (3.67 ± 0.51) gehad. Laasgenoemde het ʼn beduidend laer sinkinhoud (1.63 ± 0.28) in vergelyking met die voorkwartspiere gehad. Die Longissimus dorsi spiere van die blesbokke wat in die lente geoes is, het gemiddeld hoër pH-waardes by ≈24 uur post mortem gehad (5.60) in vergelyking met die pH-waardes van dié spiere in winter (5.54). Die CIE a*- (14.63 ± 0.86) en chroma-waardes (17.09 ± 0.63) van die manlike blesbokspiere was hoër (p<0.05) in die winter as in die lente (onderskeidelik 13.62 ± 1.08 en 16.10 ± 1.03). Aan die einde van die paartyd (winter) het die manlike blesbokke se spiere ook hoër (p<0.05) CIE a*- en chroma-waardes as die vroulike blesbokspiere (13.49 ± 0.88 en 16.22 ± 0.98) gehad. Die voorkwartspiere het gemiddeld hoër (p<0.05) chroma-waardes as die agterkwartspiere gehad, maar laasgenoemde het weer hoër (p<0.01) hue-angle waardes as die voorkwartspiere gehad. Seisoen het geen effek (p<0.05) op die drupverlies persentasies en taaiheid van die blesbokspiere gehad nie. Die Biceps femoris en Semimembranosus spiere het wel die laagste (p<0.05) drupverlies persentasies gehad. Die Infraspinatus en Supraspinatus spiere het weer die laagste (p<0.01) taaiheid (onderskeidelik 20.89 ± 3.23 en 24.90 ± 5.35) in vergelyking met die Longissimus dorsi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus en Semitendinosus spiere gehad (onderskeidelik 30.57 ± 6.69, 27.35 ± 3.42, 28.65 ± 4.48 en 31.51 ± 5.63). Alhoewel daar in die studie statisties beduidende seisoenale verskille in die chemiese samestelling van die blesbokspiere was, is die verskille numeries klein en is dit debatteerbaar of dié verskille enigsins biologies van toepassing is op menslike voeding. Verder het die anatomiese ligging van die geselekteerde blesbokspiere in die studie ʼn groter invloed op die verskille in die vetsuurprofiel, mineraal samestelling asook die fisiese eienskappe van die spiere gehad, in vergelyking met die impak van die oes-seisoen en die effek van geslag.

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