Investigating credit based mechanisms for enhancing performance in wireless ad hoc networks

Goldberg, Ariel Shei (2012-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis explores two key aspects of wireless ad hoc networks. The first aspect concerns the topic of stimulating cooperation between nodes in a wireless ad hoc network. The functionality of a wireless ad hoc network depends entirely on the willingness of nodes to relay messages on behalf of other nodes. Network functionality depends on ensuring cooperation between nodes, so that each node benefits from continued participation in the network. This suggests an important question: how can cooperation among individual nodes be managed to improve overall wireless ad hoc network performance? The second aspect explored in this thesis concerns the concept of optimal resource utilisation. Wireless ad hoc networks are characterised by limited bandwidth and energy resources, which facilitates deployment in situations in which traditional infrastructure based networks are not practical. This suggests another important question: how can the use of the limited energy and bandwidth resources of wireless ad hoc networks be optimised? This research relies on the concept of a credit-based market economy. Nodes in simulated ad hoc networks use credits to pay for the cost of sending their own traffic and earn credits by forwarding traffic on behalf of other nodes. We show that a credit-based market economy approach can be employed to stimulate and regulate cooperation between nodes in a wireless ad hoc network. We show that this approach can be implemented in a simple decentralised manner and that it has several variants depending on which node is considered to be paying for the service, what the price of each service should be and how we route packets around the network using information derived from the credit-based economy. This thesis demonstrates that several variants of a credit-based scheme can be implemented in a packet based simulator and that these variants result in the stable operation of the network and improve the overall performance. The credit-based mechanisms also show significant improvement to network performance in resource constrained conditions and represent an effective means for optimising limited energy and bandwidth resource. The effectiveness of the credit-based mechanisms increases as the load on the networks increases.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis ondersoek twee belangrike aspekte van draadlose ad hoc-netwerke. Die eerste aspek het betrekking op die onderwerp van 'n stimulerende samewerking tussen die nodusse in 'n draadlose ad hoc-netwerk. Dat die network funksioneer hang daarvan af om samewerking tussen die nodusse te verseker sodat elke nodus voordeel put uit voortgesette deelname in die netwerk. Dit dui op 'n belangrike vraag: Hoe kan die samewerking tussen die individuele nodusse bestuur word om die prestasie van 'n draadlose ad hoc-netwerk te verbeter? Die tweede aspek wat in hierdie tesis ondersoek word, behels die konsep van optimale hulpbronbenutting. Draadlose ad hoc-netwerke word gekenmerk deur beperkte bandwydte- en energie-hulpbronne, wat ontplooiing bewerkstellig in situasies waar tradisionele infrastruktuur-gebaseerde netwerke nie practise moontlik is nie. Dit dui op 'n ander belangrike vraag: Hoe kan die gebruik van die beperkte energie- en bandwydte-hulpbronne van draadlose ad hoc-netwerke optimaal bestuur word? Hierdie navorsing berus op die konsep van 'n krediet-gebaseerde markekonomie. Nodusse in gesimuleerde ad hoc-netwerke gebruik krediete om te betaal vir die versending van hul eie verkeer en nodusse verdien krediete deur die verkeer van ander nodusse aan te stuur. Ons wys dat die benadering van 'n krediet-gebaseerde markekonomie gebruik kan word om die samewerking tussen die nodusse in 'n draadlose ad hoc-netwerk te stimuleer en te reguleer. Ons wys dat hierdie benadering geïmplementeer kan word op 'n eenvoudige gedesentraliseerde wyse. Ons ondersoek verskeie variasies van die benadering, na gelang van watter nodus oorweeg word om vir die diens te betaal, wat die prys van elke diens moet wees en hoe inligting afgelei van die krediet-gebaseerde ekonomie gebruik kan word om pakkies in die netwerk te roeteer. Hierdie tesis toon dat verskeie variante van 'n krediet-gebaseerde skema geïmplementeer kan word in 'n netwerksimulator en dat hierdie variante die stabiele bedryf van en algehele verbetering in die prestasie van die network tot gevolg het. Die krediet-gebaseerde meganismes toon 'n beduidende verbetering in hulpbronbenutting en netwerkprestasie in omgewings met beperkte hulpbronne en verteenwoordig 'n doeltreffende manier om die beperkte energie- en bandwydte-hulpbronne optimaal te benut. Laastens, die doeltreffendheid van die krediet-gebaseerde meganismes word verhoog as die las op die netwerke word verhoog.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71757
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