The use of laser light scattering to study solution crystallization phenomena in polyolefins

Brand, Margaretha (2012-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: An instrument, named solution crystallization analysis by laser light scattering (SCALLS), that measures the solution melting and crystallization of polymers in solution was developed further in this study. The instrument was tested in a theoretical study to evaluate the Flory-Huggins relationship of melting point depression in solution of copolymers. It was found that the solvent interaction parameter for propylene/higher 1-alkene copolymers, with low comonomer content is dependent on the comonomer type. It was also showed that the melting point depression is dependent on both the type and amount of comonomer included in the copolymer. The instrument was further developed to include a total of three lasers with different wavelengths. Initial problems with laser interference was rectified by the introduction of dichroic mirrors to direct the laser light to the relevant detectors and broad pass filters in front of the the detectors to ensure that only the relevant laser light passes through. For homogenous polypropylene samples it was found that even though a slower cooling rate increases the relative peak temperatures as well as the relative temperature differences between the peaks, detail in the peak profiles is the same for the faster cooling rate. The subsequent heating analysis does show that there is a definite dependence on the cooling rate. The ZNPP-4 sample shows that the appearance of a shoulder in the heating analysis becomes more defined as a peak if the preceding cooling analysis is slower. Complex impact-polypropylene samples, differing only in the amount of ethylene were analysed and even small differences between samples were detected. The possible application of the SCALLS instrument was investigated. It was proven that the instrument can be used as a screening method for prep-TREF to determine the fractionation temperatures.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Instrument, genoem oplossing kristallisasie-analise deur laser lig verstrooiing (SCALLS), wat die smeltpunt asook die kristallisasie temperatuur in oplossing kan meet is verder ontwikkel in hierdie studie. Die Flory-Huggins verhouding oor die smeltpunt depressie in oplossing van ko-polimere is ondersoek in ‘n teoretiese studie. Daar is bevind dat die oplossing interaksie parameter vir propileen/hoër 1-alkeen kopolimere, met lae ko-monomeer inhoud is afhanklik op die ko-monomeer tipe. Dit is ook getoon dat die smeltpunt depressie afhanklik is van beide die tipe en hoeveelheid ko-monomeer in die ko-polimeer. Die instrument is verder ontwikkel om 'n totaal van drie lasers met verskillende golflengtes in te sluit. Aanvanklike probleme met laser inmenging is reggestel deur die bekendstelling van dichromatiese spieëls wat die laser lig na die regte ooreenstemmende detektor rig en filters voor die detektors verseker dat net die relevante laser lig die detektor bereik. Vir homogene polipropileen monsters is dit bevind dat selfs al is die analises gedoen teen ‘n stadiger afkoelings tempo wat lei tot ‘n verhoging in die piek kristallisasie temperatuur asook die relatiewe temperatuur verskille tussen die lasers, bly die detail in die piek profiele dieselfde as wat gesien word met ‘n vinniger afkoelings tempo. Die daaropvolgende verhitting analise toon dat die analise definitief afhanklik is op die voorafgaande afkoelings analise. Die ZNPP-4 monster toon dat die voorkoms van 'n skouer in die verwarming-analise word meer gedefinieerd en ‘n piek word gevorm soos die voorafgaande afkoelings tempo verlaag. Komplekse impak-polipropileen monsters, wat net verskil in die hoeveelheid etileen inhoud is geanaliseer en verskille is bepaal. Moontlike toepassings van die SCALLS instrument is ondersoek. Dit is bewys dat die instrument gebruik kan word om die fraksionering temperature vooraf te bepaal vir prep-TREF.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71751
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