Development,testing and fluid interaction simulation of a bioprosthetic valve for transcatheter aortic valve implantation

Kemp, Iain Henry (2012-12)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have been rapidly developing over the last decade since the first valve replacement using the TAVI technique. TAVI is a minimally invasive valve replacement procedure offering lifesaving treatment to patients who are denied open heart surgery. The biomedical engineering research group at Stellenbosch University designed a 19 mm balloon expandable BHV for TAVI in 2007/8 for testing in animal trials. In the current study the valve was enlarged to 23 mm and 26 mm diameters. A finite element analysis was performed to aid in the design of the stents. New stencils were designed and manufactured for the leaflets using Thubrikar‟s equations as a guide. The 23 mm valve was manufactured and successfully implanted into two sheep. Fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulations constitute a large portion of this thesis and are being recognized as an important tool in the design of BHVs. Furthermore, they provide insight into the interaction of the blood with the valve, the leaflet dynamics and valve hemodynamic performance. The complex material properties, pulsating flow, large deformations and coupling of the fluid and the physical structure make this one of the most complicated and difficult research areas within the body. The FSI simulations, of the current valve design, were performed using a commercial programme called MSC.Dytran. A validation study was performed using data collected from a cardiac pulse duplicator. The FSI model was validated using leaflet dynamics visualisation and transvalvular pressure gradient comparison. Further comparison studies were performed to determine the material model to be used and the effect of leaflet free edge length and valve diameter on valve performance. The results from the validation study correlated well, considering the limitations that were experienced. However, further research is required to achieve a thorough validation. The comparative studies indicated that the linear isotropic material model was the most stable material model which could be used to simulate the leaflet behaviour. The free edge length of the leaflet affects the leaflet dynamics but does not greatly hinder its performance. The hemodynamic performance of the valve improves with an increase in diameter and the leaflet dynamics perform well considering the increased surface area and length. Many limitations in the software prevented more accurate material models and flow initiation to be implemented. These limitations significantly restricted the research and confidence in the results. Further investigation regarding the implementation of FSI simulations of a heart valve using the commercial software is recommended.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Bio-prostetiese hartkleppe (Bioprosthetic Heart Valves - BHVs) wat gebruik word vir transkateter aortaklep-inplantings (Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation - TAVI) het geweldig vinnige ontwikkeling getoon in die afgelope tien jaar sedert die eerste klepvervanging wat van die TAVI prosedure gebruik gemaak het. TAVI is ʼn minimaal indringende klepvervangingsprosedure wat lewensreddende behandeling bied aan pasiënte wat ope-hart sjirurgie geweier word. Die Biomediese Ingenieurswese Navorsingsgroep (BERG) by Stellenbosch Universiteit het in 2007/8 ʼn 19 mm ballon-uitsetbare BHV vir TAVI ontwerp vir eksperimente met diere, en hierdie tesis volg op die vorige projekte. In die huidige studie is die klep vergroot na 23 mm en 26 mm in deursnee. ʼn Eindige element analise is gedoen om by te dra tot die ontwerp van die rekspalke vir die klep. Nuwe stensils is ontwerp en vervaardig vir die klepsuile, deur gebruik te maak van Thubrikar se vergelykings. Die 23 mm klep is vervaardig en suksesvol in twee skape ingeplant. Vloeistruktuur interaksie (Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI)) simulasies vorm ‟n groot deel van die tesis en word gesien as ʼn noodsaaklike hulpmiddel in die ontwerp van BHVs. Die simulasies verskaf ook insig in die interaksie van die bloed met die klep, die klepsuil-dinamika en die klep se hemodinamiese werkverrigting. Die komplekse materiaal eienskappe, polsende vloei, grootskaalse vervorming, die verbinding van die vloeistof en die fisiese struktuur maak van hierdie een van die mees gekompliseerde voorwerpe om te simuleer. Die FSI simulasies van die huidige ontwerp, is uitgevoer deur van kommersiële sagteware, MSC.Dytran, gebruik te maak. ʼn Geldigheidstudie wat data gebruik het vanaf die hartklop-nabootser, is uitgevoer. Die FSI model word geverifieer deur klepsuil dinamika visualisering en ʼn vergelyking van die drukgradiënt gebruik te maak. Verdere vergelykende studies is uitgevoer om te bepaal watter materiaal model om te gebruik, asook die uitwerking van die klepsuil-vrye rand en klepdeursnee op die klep se werkverrigting. Die resultate van die studie korreleer goed, in ag genome die beperkings wat ervaar is. Verdere navorsing is egter nodig vir ʼn volledige geldigheidstudie. Vergelykende studies het getoon dat die liniêre isotropiese materiaalmodel die meer stabiele materiaalmodel is wat kan gebruik word om klepsuilgedrag te simuleer. Die vrye-rand lengte van die klepsuil affekteer die dinamika van die klepsuil, maar belemmer nie die werkverrigting grootliks nie. Die hemodinamiese werkverrigting van die klep verbeter met die toename in deursnee en die klepsuil-dinamika vertoon goed in ag genome die verhoogde oppervlak area en lengte. Die vele beperkings in die sagteware het die implementering van meer akkurate materiaalmodelle verhoed. Hierdie beperkings het ʼn verminderde vertroue in die resultate tot gevolg gehad. Verdere ondersoek rakende die implementering van die FSI simulasies van ʼn hartklep deur kommersieel beskikbare sagteware te gebruik, word aanbevel.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71710
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