Development of a low cost secondary slave manipulator for a minimally invasive robotic surgical system

Worst, Siebert Christo (2012-12)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) in human beings is performed by making small incisions in the abdominal region of the patient and inflating the abdominal cavity with CO2. This procedure enables the surgeon to manipulate long rigid surgical instruments inside the patient in order to perform the surgery. Unfortunately the current methods of insertion and assembly of MIS instruments limit the surgeon to only five (of a possible seven) Degrees of Freedom (DOF). Along with this, the surgeon’s movements are mirrored (called the Fulcrum effect) and scaled around the point of incision. Minimally invasive surgical robots attempt to alleviate these drawbacks by eliminating the Fulcrum effect, as well as improving dexterity and accuracy. These robots’ abilities to improve the surgeon’s hand-eye coordination, enables the surgeon to perform surgeries using their natural movements with reduced fatigue. As a result of this, the risk to both patient and surgeon is reduced. Existing MIS robotic systems are extremely expensive and large, and as a result they are not widely used. In this thesis a new, lower cost, seven DOF robotic manipulator is further developed. The thesis focuses on the external three DOF Secondary Slave Manipulator (SSM) and combines it with the Primary Slave Manipulator (PSM) that was developed by a previous Masters student. Tests done on the SSM showed that the manipulator has a minimum resolution of 0.7 ± 0.2 mm (mean ± standard deviation) on the shoulder joint’s yaw rotation and 0.5 ± 0.2 mm in pitch rotation. The linear actuator used for insertion has a minimum resolution of 0.2 ± 0.2 mm. A strength test was also conducted and showed that the manipulator is easily capable of producing a 10 N actuation force as required during Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery (MIRS) procedures. In conclusion the complete system has potential as a viable alternative to the existing systems due to its accuracy and lower cost. Future work will include the development of a user interface and control system for the complete robot.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Minimaal Indringende Chirurgie (MIC) op mense word uitgevoer deur klein insnydings in die pasiënt se buik te maak en dan die abdominale holte met CO2 te vul. Dit stel die chirurg in staat om lang, onbuigbare instrumente binne die pasiënt te manipuleer om sodoende die operasie uit te voer. Die manier waarop die MIC instrument ontwerp is en die pasiënt binnegaan, laat egter slegs vyf vryheidsgrade toe, terwyl die chirurg self sewe vryheidsgrade in sy handbewegings het. Verder veroorsaak hierdie instrumente ook dat die chirurg se aksies in spieëlbeeld vertolk word (Fulcrum effek) en geskaleer is. Chirurgiese robotika poog om hierdie nadele teen te werk deur die Fulcrum effek te verwyder, en ook om handvaardigheid en akkuraatheid te bevorder. Die robot se potensiaal om die chirurg se hand-oog koӧrdinasie te verbeter, maak dit moontlik vir die chirurg om op ’n meer natuurlike en gemaklike manier te werk te gaan en bring minder vermoeienis mee. Dit verminder die risiko’s vir beide die pasiënt en die chirurg. Bestaande robotiese stelsels is egter baie duur en groot, en word dus nie meer algemeen gebruik nie. In hierdie tesis word ‘n nuwe sewe-vryheidsgraad robotiese manipuleerder ontwikkel. Die tesis fokus op die eksterne drie-vryheidsgraad Sekondêre Slaaf Manipuleerder (SSM) en kombineer dit met die Primêre Slaaf Manipuleerder (PSM) wat deur ʼn vorige Meestersstudent ontwikkel is. Toetse wat uitgevoer is op die SSM het getoon dat dit ’n minimum resolusie van 0.7 ± 0.2 mm (gemiddeld ± standaard afwyking) op die skouer se afwyking en 0.5 ± 0.2 mm om die onderskeie skouer aslyne toon. Die linieêre aktueerder wat vir inlassing gebruik word het ’n minimum resolusie van 0.2 ± 0.2 mm. ’n Sterktetoets is uitgevoer en het getoon dat die manipuleerder maklik die nodige 10 N krag soos benodig in Minimaal Indringende Robotiese Chirurgie (MIRC) prosedures kan lewer. Ter afsluiting, die volledige stelsel het die potensiaal as lewensvatbare alternatief tot die bestaande stelsels vanweë die akkuraatheid en laer koste verbonde. Toekomstige navorsing kan moontlik die ontwikkeling van ʼn gebruikerkoppelvlak en beheerstelsel vir die volledige robot insluit.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71618
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