Highly filled water based polymer/clay hybrid latexes

Zengeni, Eddson (2012-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The use of co-sonication (ad-miniemulsion) polymerisation for the preparation of highly filled polymer/clay hybrid latexes is described. Laponite (Lap) content levels in the range of 10–50 wt% were effectively encapsulated in both polystyrene (PS) and polystyrene-co-butyl acrylate nanoparticles (PSBA). The latex and film morphological features of these highly filled hybrid materials were evaluated using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). PS/Lap latexes exhibited mixed particle morphologies from armoured particles at low clay content (10 wt%) to encapsulated particles at high clay content (50 wt%). However, PSBA/Lap hybrid latexes exhibited predominantly crumpled particle morphologies through the clay content studied. The resultant polymer/clay nanocomposites (PCNs) of PS/Lap and PSBA/Lap exhibited either partially or fully exfoliated structures. It was found that generally these PCNs exhibited superior properties than the neat polymers except for thermal stability properties. As much as 5000% storage modulus improvement was observed for both PS/Lap and PSBA/Lap relative to the neat polymers. The Tg of PSBA/Lap showed a 14 ºC shift towards higher temperature. Rheology tests showed that the resultant PCNs exhibited solid-like viscoelastic behaviour. The encapsulation of montmorilonite clay (MMT) using the ad-miniemulsion procedure was found to be ineffective. The MMT platelets remained adhered onto the polymer particles surfaces. Ineffective encapsulation of MMT platelets was attributed to their dimensions which were either large or equal to those of the polymer particles. Despite the ineffective encapsulation, the MMT platelets were completely exfoliated within the final PCNs as shown by both SAXS and TEM. Overall, the ad-miniemulsion was found to be an effective method for the preparation of highly filled water based polymer/clay hybrid latexes. However, the clay encapsulation in polymer particles and the extent of clay exfoliation were found to be dependent on clay dimensions relative to the polymer particles, monomer/clay compatibility and clay modifier reactivity. It was found that clay dimensions and use of clay modifier that improve monomer/clay compatibility enhances encapsulation. On the other hand, the modifier reactivity influenced the extent of clay exfoliation in the final PCN, irrespective of clay encapsulation in the polymer particles. These findings were based on comparative studies conducted on the use of Lap versus MMT and non-reactive modifier versus reactive modifier during ad-miniemulsion polymerisation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van mede-sonikasie (ad-miniemulsie) polimerisasie vir die voorbereiding van die hoogsgevulde polimeer/klei hibriedlatekse word beskryf. Laponiet (Lap) vlakke in hoeveelhede van 10-50 gew% is effektief ge-inkapsuleer in beide polistireen (PS) en polistireen-ko-butielakrilaat nanopartikels (PSBA). Die morfologiese eienskappe van die latekse en films van hierdie hoogsgevulde hibried materiale is geëvalueer deur beide transmissie-elektronmikroskopie (TEM) en klein-hoek X-straal-verstrooiing (SAXS). PS/Lap latekse het gemengde partikel morfologieë getoon, bv. vanaf gepantserde partikels by lae kleihoeveelhede (10 gew%) tot ge-inkapsuleerde partikels by hoë kleihoeveelhede (50 gew%). Daarteenoor het PSBA/Lap hibriedlatekse „n oorwegend verkreukelde partikelmorfologie getoon vir die reeks kleihoeveelhede wat bestudeer is. Die gevolglike polimeer/klei nanokomposiete (PKNs) van PS/Lap en PSBA/Lap het, óf gedeeltelike, óof ten volle geëksfolieerde strukture getoon. Oor die algemeen is bevind dat hierdie PKNs beter eienskappe as die suiwer polimere getoon het, behalwe vir die termiese stabiliteit eienskappe. Verbeteringe van soveel as 5000% in die stoormodulus is waargeneem vir beide PS/Lap en PSBA/Lap met betrekking tot die suiwer polimere. Die Tg van PSBA/Lap het „n 14°C verskuiwing na „n hoër temperatuur getoon. Reologiese toetse het getoon dat die gevolglike PKNs vastestofagtige visko-elastiese gedrag getoon het. Die inkapsulering van montmorilonietklei (MMT), deur middel van die ad-miniemulsieproses, was ondoeltreffend. Die MMT plaatjies het agtergebly op die oppervlaktes van die polimeerpartikel. Oneffektiewe inkapsulering van MMT plaatjies is toegeskryf aan hul grootte, wat óf groter, óf gelyk was aan dié van die polimeerpartikels. Ten spyte van die oneffektiewe inkapsulering was al die MMT plaatjies in die finale PKNs geëksfolieer soos deur beide SAXS en TEM aangedui. Oor die algemeen is bevind dat ad-miniemulsie „n effektiewe metode is vir die voorbereiding van hoogsgevulde waterbasis polimeer/klei hibriedlatekse. Daar is egter bevind dat klei inkapsulering in polimeerpartikels asook die omvang van klei eksfoliëring, afhanklik is van die klei afmetings in verhouding tot die polimeerpartikels, monomeer/klei verenigbaarheid en die reaktiwiteit van die kleiwysiger. Daar is bevind dat die klei afmetings en die gebruik van „n kleiwysiger wat die monomeer/klei verenigbaarheid verbeter, inkapsulering bevorder. Aan die ander kant het die reaktiwiteit van die kleiwysiger die omvang van klei eksfoliëring in die finale PKNs beïnvloed, ongeag van klei inkapsulering in die polimeerpartikels. Hierdie bevindings is gebaseer op vergelykende studies van die gebruik van Lap teenoor MMT en nie-reaktiewe wysiger teenoor reaktiewe wysiger gedurende ad-miniemulsiepolimerisasie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/71613
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