Pentastomiasis (armillifer armillatus infestation)
Pentastomiasis, also known as ‘tongue worm’ infestation or porocephalosis, is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. In 1847, Pruner described the first human infection by a pentastomid in Cairo. The definitive hosts are snakes and other reptiles, while the intermediate hosts are carnivorous mammals and, rarely, humans. Most cases of human pentastomiasis are caused by two species of pentastomids, both of which have characteristics of arthropods and annelids, viz. Armillifer armillatus and Linguatula serrata.