Die institusionalisering van 'n primere skoolkurrikulum : 'n modulere benadering

Van der Merwe, C. R. (Christiaan Rudolph) (1992-03)

Thesis (M. Ed.)--Stellenbosch University, 1992.

Some pages have text underlined.

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie is daar gepoog om vas te stel wat nodig is om 'n primere skoolkurrikulum deel van die praktyk te maak. Daar is waarskynlik velerlei wyses waarop die skoolkurrikulum deel gemaak kan word van die praktyk, maar vir die doeleindes van hierdie studie is daar op 'n modulere benadering gefokus. Die modulere kurrikulumbenadering vertoon geen vreemde komponente nie, trouens, doelstellingformulering, inhoudseleksie, doelwitformulering, die seleksie van onderwysmetodes en onderwysmedia, leerdergerigte asook kurrikulumevaluering vorm die basis daarvan. Een voorvereiste vir die institusionalisering van 'n skoolkurrikulum is <lat die skool 'n kurrikulumbenadering wat by sy behoeftes pas, moet ontwikkel. Hiervoor is die proses van kurrikulumontwikkeling noodsaaklik. Kurrikulumontwikkeling bet effektiewer onderrig en leer ten doel en sluit sekere prominente fases, te wete ontwerp-, disseminering-, implementering- en evalueringsfases op verskeie kurrikuleringsvlakke in. Op die terrein van die primere s_kool behels die makrovlak kurrikuleringshandelinge deur veral die, skoolhoof, die kurrikulumkoordineerder en die kurrikulumspan. Die mesovlak sluit kurrikuleringshandelinge deur veral die standerd- en vakhoofde in, terwyl die onderwyser en sy leerders by mikrovlakkurrikulering betrokke is. Elke kurrikulumfase toon raakpunte op al die kurrikuleringsvlakke en word breedvoerig in hierdie studie toegelig. Betrokkenheid by die proses van kurrikulumontwikkeling word deurgaans beklemtoon en onderwyserinspraak op al die kurrikuleringsvlakke word aangemoedig. Dit blyk ook baie duidelik uit hierdie studie <lat kurrikulumontwikkeling, hetsy deur middel van 'n modulere of enige ander kurrikulumbenadering, 'n proses is wat deur mense en nie aan mense nie, gedoen word. Die effek wat kurrikulumontwikkeling behoort te he, is onder andere doeltreffender onderrig in die klaskamer. Om dit te bewerkstellig, behoort die kurrikulum bestuur te word deur verskeie funksionarisse. Een van die essensiele bestuursfunksies in die proses van kurrikulumontwikkeling is die skep van 'n geskikte klimaat aangesien vernuwing normaalweg gepaard gaan met weerstand. Wanneer vernuwing egter stabiliseer, en die kurrikulum welliswaar deel word van die instituut, kan daar sprake wees van kurrikuluminstitusionalisering. Enkele faktore kan egter die institusionalisering van 'n skoolkurrikulum be'invloed en in sommige gevalle die sukses daarvan belemmer: Indien sekere strukture en funksionarisse in die skoolinstituut ontbreek, sal kommunikasie tussen die onderskeie kurrikuleringsvlakke nie bewerkstellig kan word nie. Onderwysers beskik ook nie oor so baie tyd om te kurrikuleer nie, aangesien hulle betrokke is by kurrikulere en ko-kurrikulere aktiwiteite. Somtyds ervaar skole 'n hoe mate van personeelwisseling, wat meebring dat indiensopleiding ten opsigte van die betrokke kurrikulumbenadering wat in die skool gevolg word, onontbeerlik is. Enige vernuwing hou vir baie persone (om verskeie redes) skynbaar 'n bedreiging in en is hulle dus teen enige innovasie gekant. Tydens die institusionalisering van 'n kurrikulum sal daar dus met hierdie vrese en gebrek aan sekuriteit rekening gehou moet word sodat dit oorkom kan word. Voorts sal 'n kurrikulumontwikkelingspoging wat rigiditeit tot gevolg kan he onderwyserinisiatief demp. Daarom moet 'n kurrikulumbenadering wat die unieke onderrigstyle van onderwysers kan akkomodeer, gevolg word. Die effektiewe bestuur van enige instituut gaan gepaard met kontrolering en monitering sodat die effektiwiteit daarvan bepaal kan word. Die gebrek aan geldige kriteria sal egter hierdie evaluering bemoeilik. Etlike voorstelle om met hierdie faktore rekening te hou word in hierdie studie aan die leser voorgehou. 'n Skoolkurrikulum sal dus slegs suksesvol ge'institusionaliseer kan word, as daar sprake is van effektiewe kurrikulumbestuur met behulp van 'n werkbare kurrikulumbenadering. Elke skool kan hierin _slaag deur op sy eie, unieke wyse betrokke te raak by die proses van kurrikulumontwikkeling.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study attempts have been made to determine what is necessary to make a primary school curriculum part of the practice. There are probably many ways of making the school curriculum part of the practice but for the purposes of this study, the focus is placed on a modular curriculum approach. The modular curriculum approach displays no strange components. As a matter of fact, components like the formulation of goals, the selection of contents, the formulation of objectives, the selection of teaching methods and media as well as curriculum evaluation form the basis of this approach. A prerequisite for the institutionalisation of a school curriculum is that the school should develop an approach that suits its needs. For this reason, the process of curriculum development is required. The aim of curriculum development is to improve teaching and learning. The process includes prominent phases namely curriculum desing, dissemination, implementation and curriculum evaluation. These phases occur on different curriculum levels on the terrain of the school. On macro level it involves curriculum activities that are performed by the principal, the curriculum co-ordinator and the curriculum team. The mesa level includes curriculum operations that are done by the standard and the subject heads, while the micro level entails activities by mainly the teacher and the learner. The curriculum phases occur on all the curriculum levels and is fully elucidated in this study. Involvement by the teachers in the process of curriculum development as well as teacher participation on all the curriculum levels is encouraged throughout this study. It is also very clear that curriculum development, whether it is implemented by means· of the modular or any other approach should be implemented by people and not done to them. One of the effects that curriculum development should have, is more efficient teaching in the classroom. To accomplish this, it is necessary to manage the curriculum with several functionaries. One of the most important managing tasks in the process of curriculum development is the establishment of a positive climate. It is often the case that resistance is caused whenever renewal is inisiated. When however, renewal stabilises, the curriculum could be seen as institusionalised. Certain factors can influence the institusionalisation of a school curriculum and in some cases impede the success thereof: If structures and functionaries are lacking, it would be an impossible task to establish communication between the various curriculum levels. Another factor that needs to be considered is the fact that teachers do not have that much time available for curriculum development as they normally find themselves busy with curricular and co-curricular duties. It is often the case that schools experience staff changes which makes continuous in-servicetraining concerning curriculum development essential. Renewal normally leads to resistance and this should be dealt with as tip priority. At all costs resistance amongst staff memebers should be overcome. A curriculum development attempt that causes rigidity can suppress teacher inisiative. Therefore the curriculum approach that is followed in a school should be flexible to accommodate different teaching styles. The effective management of any institute involves evaluation activities to determine its effect. If valid criteria lack, the evaluation task would surely be hindered. Various.ways of overcoming the above mentioned problems are suggested to the reader. A school curriculum will only be successfully institusionalised if effective curriculum management by means of a workable curriculum approach is performed. Every school can succeed in doing so by becoming involved in the process of curriculum development in their own unique way.

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