Die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika (UNISA) se musiekeksamen-sisteem : ʼn historiese agtergrond en kritiese bespreking van die klavierprogram

Grobbelaar, Margaretha Louisa (2011-03)

Thesis (MMus (Music))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Unisa piano examinations play a vital role in present-day South African music education. Results attained in the Unisa examinations can be used as subject marks at school, and could also give the pupil access to an audition towards further studies at a tertiary institution. While the examination body is of great importance, there is no literature to be found on the success of the system. The researcher firstly intends to establish to what extend the development of the piano has had an influence on technique and pedagogy. Educational philosophies that follow from this are discussed shortly, as well as beginner teaching methods by using four well known beginner books. The above aspects form the background used to understand the prominence and development of the examination system. Secondly, the components of the external examinations are determined and how holistically this approach is implemented in lessons. While keeping in mind that the 2010 syllabus consists of only four pieces, prescribed scales, aural tests, sightreading and practical musicianship, candidates are restricted with regard to repertoire knowledge, technical abilities and ensemble. Traditionally, great emphasis has been placed on the importance of external examinations. This places enormous pressure on the learner, resulting in added stress during the examining procedure. This is reflected in their performances, and therefore the pupil’s ability cannot be tested in an objective manner. Yet the result of external examinations is important to teachers, pupils and parents, and is used to evaluate the pupil’s skill and capability as a musician. Three research methodologies were used to ensure an accurate study. A literature review was completed to investigate the need that led to the development of external examinations. To place the research within a South African context, a survey of a quantitative nature was conducted by means of a questionnaire. The aim is firstly to ascertain what teachers use as teaching material and secondly the extent to which the external examination contributes to the structuring of the learning process. This empirical study focuses on the teacher and the examination experience of the learner as well as the role and opinion of the parents regarding the external examining system. Statistical models were created to represent the data captured. Data analysis shows that on average, most teachers are reliant on the Unisa syllabus for choosing repertoire and the structuring of their lessons. This implies that the learner is restricted to the Unisa syllabus and its requirements, which inhibit the development of further musical challenges. Due to the degree of difficulty of the external examinations, there is little room for additional works and therefore the learner is often limited to playing less than six pieces a year. In conclusion, the researcher suggests the following: to propose a new school of thought based on the development of musicianship rather than achievementorientated tuition. The playing of external examinations does not need to be the main object of music tuition; rather, external examinations should be used as a guide for assessment, which forms part of a holistic approach to music education.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Unisa se klaviereksamens speel ʼn belangrike rol in die hedendaagse Suid- Afrikaanse musiekopvoeding. Nie net dien uitslae behaal in ʼn Unisa-eksamen as ekwivalent vir musiek as vak in ʼn skoolopset nie, maar ook as toegang tot oudisie met die oog op toelating tot tersiêre musiekonderrig aan ʼn universiteit. Alhoewel hierdie eksamenliggaam soveel gewig dra, is daar geen literatuur wat dui op die geslaagdheid van die sisteem nie. Die navorser wil deur hierdie studie eerstens die ontwikkeling van die klavier en die invloed daarvan op tegniek en pedagogie bepaal. Die opvoedkundige filosofieë wat hierop volg, word kortliks bespreek asook beginnermetodes aan die hand van vier welbekende beginnerboeke. Hierdie aspekte verskaf die nodige agtergrond om die prominensie van en aanloop tot die eksamensisteem te verstaan. Tweedens word die komponente waaruit eksterne eksamens bestaan, vasgestel en hoe holisties die onderrig hiervan binne lesverband toegepas word. Indien slegs die eksterne eksamensillabus nagevolg word, het dit ʼn beperking tot gevolg in terme van repertoriumkennis, tegniese vaardighede asook ensemblespel, as in gedagte gehou word dat die 2010-sillabus uit slegs vier werke, voorgeskryfde toonlere, gehoortoetse, bladlees en praktiese musiekleer bestaan. Tradisioneel word daar geweldige klem op die belangrikheid van eksamenaflegging geplaas en dit het enorme druk op die leerder tot gevolg, wat groot spanning tydens die uitvoer van die program veroorsaak. Op sigself beïnvloed dit die leerder se spel, en kan sy of haar vaardighede dus nie objektief getoets word nie. Tog speel die eksamenresultaat ʼn groot rol in hoe die kind, onderwyser en ouer die leerder se vaardighede as musikant evalueer. Ter wille van akkurate navorsing is drie metodes gevolg. ʼn Literatuurstudie is gedoen om voldoende kennis in te win oor die behoefte wat gelei het tot die ontstaan en ontwikkeling van eksterne klaviereksamens. Om hierdie studie in ʼn hedendaagse Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te plaas, is ʼn kwantitatiewe dataversameling deur middel van vraelyste uitgevoer. Eerstens wou die navorser hierdeur bepaal watter onderrigmateriaal onderwysers gebruik en tweedens tot watter mate die eksterne eksamen bydra tot die strukturering van die leerproses. Hierdie empiriese studie fokus nie net op die onderwyser nie, maar ook op die eksamenervaring van die leerder, asook die ouers se rol en mening rakende die eksterne klaviereksamensisteem. Op grond van die versamelde data is statistiese modellering saamgestel om die bevindings uit te beeld. Die data-analise toon dat onderwysers oor die algemeen baie afhanklik is van die Unisa-klaviersillabus vir repertoriumkeuses en lesbeplanning. Daardeur word die leerder beperk tot die sillabusvereistes wat volgens Unisa bepaal word, wat verdere musikale uitdagings strem. Weens die moeilikheidsgraad laat dit min ruimte vir addisionele werk, wat die leerder se repertorium beperk tot gewoonlik minder as ses werke per jaar. Na voltooiing van die studie kan die volgende aanbevelings gemaak word: Die navorser wil aanbeveel dat ʼn nuwe denkrigting gevolg word, wat die bevordering van musikantskap tot gevolg het, eerder as prestasiegedrewe onderrig. Die aflegging van eksterne eksamens behoort nie die hoofdoel van die onderrigproses te wees nie, maar moet verkieslik benader word as ʼn hulpmiddel tot assessering wat deel vorm van ʼn holistiese aanslag tot onderrig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6898
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