Machining of powder metal titanium

Sobiyi, Kehinde Kolawole (2011-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the machinability of commercially pure (CP) titanium, manufactured using the press-and-sinter PM process. To this end, CP titanium powder (-200 mesh) was compacted and sintered in vacuum (10-4 torr) for two hours at 1200°C. Small cylindrical samples were compacted at pressures varying from 350 to 600 MPa in order to determine the compressibility of the powder. Following these tests, four larger stepped-cylinder samples were compacted at pressures close to 400 MPa and sintered under similar conditions. These samples had sintered densities varying between 3.82 and 4.41 g/cm3. They were used to evaluate the machinability of the sintered titanium using face turning machining tests. The samples were machined dry, using uncoated carbide (WC-Co) cutting tool. Cutting speeds between 60-150 m/min were evaluated while keeping the feed rate and depth of cut constant at 0.15 mm/rev and 0.5 mm, respectively. The final machined surface finish and the tool wear experienced during the face turning machining tests were monitored in order to evaluate PM titanium’s machining performance. This study showed that it is possible to use the press-and-sinter PM process with CP titanium powder, with a particle size of less than 75 μm (-200 mesh), to manufacture sintered titanium. However, particle shape influences the compressibility of the powder and pressing parts of larger volume, such as the machining test sample shape, is challenging when using such small particle size powder. Processing conditions, such as compaction pressure, sintering temperature and sintering time, influence the sintered density. Results from the machinability tests show that tool wear increases with a decrease in the porosity of the sintered titanium. A more porous sintered material has both lower strength and thermal conductivity. As these factors have opposing effects on the machinability of materials, it is concluded that the strength of the sintered titanium has a stronger influence on its machinability than the thermal conductivity. The cutting tool wear was uniform but showed indications of crater wear. The machined surface of the denser parts had minimal defects compared to less dense parts. Chip shape is long for the dense parts, and spiral for the less dense parts. The chips formed were all segmented, which is typical for titanium. The machinability of the sintered CP titanium was compared to that of wrought titanium alloys. As expected, it was found that the machinability of the sintered titanium was poor in comparison.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie is om die masjineerbaarheid van kommersieel suiwer (KS) titaan, wat deur die pers-en-sinter poeiermetallurgie (PM) metode vervaardig word, te ondersoek. Om hierdie doel te bereik, is KS titaan poeier (-200 ogiesdraad) gekompakteer en gesinter in ‘n vakuum (10-4 torr) teen 1200°C vir 2 ure. Klein silindriese monsters is tussen drukke van 350en 600 MPa gekompakteer om die samedrukbaarheid van die poeier te bepaal. Na aanleiding van hierdie toetse, is vier groter trapvormige-silinder monsters by drukke naby aan 400MPa gekompakteer en onder soortgelyke omstandighede gesinter. Hierdie monsters het gesinterde digthede tussen 3.82 en 4.41 g/cm3 gehad. Hulle is gebruik om die masjineerbaarheid van die gesinterde titaan te ondersoek deur middel van vlak-draai masjineringstoetse. Die monsters is sonder smeermiddel gemasjineer met onbedekte karbied (WC-Co) snygereedskap. Snysnelhede tussen 60 – 150 m/min is geëvalueer terwyl die voertempo en diepte van die snit konstant by 0.15 mm/rev en 0.5 mm, onderskeidelik, gehou is. Die finale gemasjineerde oppervlak afwerking en gereedskapsslytasie tydens die vlak-draai masjinering toets is van die faktore wat gemonitor is sodat PM titaan se optrede tydens masjinering geëvalueer kan word. Hierdie studie wys dat diepers-en-sinter metode wel met KS titaan poeier, met ‘n partikel grootte van minder as 75 μm (-200 maas), gebruik kan word om gesinterde titaan te vervaardig. Die partikelgrootte beïnvloed wel die samedrukbaarheid van die poeier. Die samedrukking van parte met groter volume, soos bv die masjinerings toetsmonster, is uitdagend wanneer klein partikelgrootte poeier gebruik word. Proses omstandighede, soos kompaksie druk, sinteringstemperatuur en sinteringstyd, beïnvloed die gesinterde digtheid. Resultate van die masjineerbaarheidstoetse wys dat beitelslytasie toeneem met ‘n afname in porositeit van die gesinterede titaan. ‘n Meer poreus gesinterde materiaal het beide laer sterkte en termiese geleidingsvermoë. Aangesien hierdie faktore teenoorgestelde uitwerkings op masjineerbaarheid het, word dit dan afgelei dat die sterkte van gesinterde titaan ‘n groter invloed het op sy masjineerbaarheid as die termiese geleidingsvermoë. Die beitel se slytasie is hoofsaahlik, maar het tekens van kraterslytasie getoon. Die gemasjineerde oppervlak van die meer digte onderdele of toetsmonters het min gebreke gehad in vergelyking met die minder digte dele. Die vorm van die spaanders is lank vir digte parte, en spiraalvormig vir minder digte toetsmonsters. Die spaanders wat gevorm het, was almal gesegmenteerd, wat tipies is vir titaan. Die masjineerbaarheid van die gesinterde KS titaan is met dié van gesmede titaanallooie vergelyk. Soos verwag is, is gevind dat die masjineerbaarheid van die gesinterde titaan in vergelyking swak is.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6852
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