Effect of water maldistribution on cooling tower fill performance evaluation

Bertrand, Timothy Paul (2011-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A 1.5 x 1.5 m2 counter-flow fill performance test facility is described in detail. Instrumentation was selected and installed in the cooling tower fill test facility and calibrated to ensure measurement accuracy. A facility control program was written to simplify the operation of the test facility via a user interface. The program calculates automatically the Merkel number and loss coefficients as measures of fill thermal and flow performance respectively. A spray frame was designed and manufactured to ensure uniform water distribution to the fill. The water distribution through different fills with varying fill heights and different water flow rates was measured. The water attached to the walls of the test facility was examined. Film, trickle and splash fills are tested in the upgraded test facility. The film and trickle fill performance determined during testing is deemed acceptable as these fills have minimal migration effects. Fills with poor distribution effects and large migration of water towards the walls of the test facility, like the splash fill tested, cannot to be tested accurately in a 1.5 x 1.5 m2 test section as the results do not represent the performance of the fill in a relatively large cooling tower. Other aspects examined were: • air flow uniformity • air fill bypass effects • location of water inlet and outlet temperature measurement points • location of pressure measurement probes. It was determined that, in the current test facility: • air uniformity is suitable for performance testing • air bypass effects can be ignored for open fills and can be minimised for dense fills by packing sponge between the fill and walls • water inlet and outlet temperatures should be measured in the pipe-work, resulting in a measurement method that is not influenced by the relative weightings of each thermocouple • pressure difference over the fill height measured by the pressure measurement tap is independent of its location on the fill outlet plane provided the pressure measurement points are perpendicular to the air stream and are not against the walls.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n 1.5 x 1.5 m² Teenvloei pakking werkverrigting toetsfasiliteit word in detail beskryf. Instrumentasie is gekies en geïnstalleer in die koeltoring pakking toetsfasiliteit en gekalibreer om akkuraatheid te verseker. 'n Fasiliteit beheer program is geskryf om die gebruik van die toetsfasiliteit te vereenvoudig. Die program het ‘n vriendelike gebruikers intervalk. Die program bereken outomaties die Merkel-getal en verlies koëffisiënte as mate van pakking termiese- en vloeiwerksverrigting. 'n Sproeiraam is ontwerp en vervaardig om uniforme water verspreiding aan die pakking te verseker. Die water verspreiding deur verskillende pakkings met verskillende pakking hoogtes en water vloei snelhede is gemeet. Die water aangeheg aan die mure van die toetsfasiliteit is ook ondersoek. Film, druppel en spat pakkings word in die opgegradeerde toetsfasiliteit getoets. Die film- en druppelpakking werksverrigting bepaal tydens die toetse is aanvaarbaar, aangesien hierdie pakkings minimale migrasie effekte het. Pakking met swak verspreiding effekte en 'n groot migrasie van water na die wande van die toetsfasiliteit, soos gevind met die spatpakking toetse, kan nie met akkuraatheid in 'n 1.5 x 1.5 m² toets seksie getoets word nie omdat die resultate nie die werkverrigting van die pakking verteenwoordig in 'n relatief groot koeltoring. Ander aspekte wat ondersoek was: • lugvloei uniformiteit • lug omleiding effeckte • die posisie van water in- en uitlaat temperatuur meetpunte • posisie van die drukmeetapparaat. Dit is vasgestel dat, in die huidige toetsfasiliteit • lugvloei eenvormigheid geskik is vir prestasietoetsing • lug omleiding effekte kan geïgnoreer word vir oop pakkings en kan verklein word vir digte pakkings deur spons tussen die pakking en mure te pak • water inlaat- en uitlaattemperature behoort gemeet te word in die pypwerk en lei tot 'n metings metode wat nie beïnvloed word deur die relatiewe gewigte van elke thermokoppel nie • die druk verskil gemeet deur die drupmeetpunte oor die pakkinghoogte is onafhanklik van hul posisie op die pakkinguitlaatvlak op voorwaarde dat die drukmeetpunte loodreg is teen die lugstroom en nie teen die mure nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6841
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