Mutagenesis and functional studies of the HIV-1 vpr gene and Vpr protein obtained from South African virus strains

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dc.contributor.advisor Engelbrecht, Susan en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisor Glashoff, Richard H. en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Romani, Bizhan en_ZA
dc.contributor.other University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Pathology. Medical Virology en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2010-12-10T08:36:51Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2011-03-14T08:32:54Z
dc.date.available 2010-12-10T08:36:51Z en_ZA
dc.date.available 2011-03-14T08:32:54Z
dc.date.issued 2011-03 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6702
dc.description Thesis (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2011. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein that interacts with a number of host cellular and other viral proteins. Vpr exerts several functions such as induction of apoptosis, induction of cell cycle G2 arrest, modulation of gene expression, and suppression of immune activation. The functionality of subtype C Vpr, especially South African strains, has not been studied. The aim of this study was to describe the diversity of South African HIV-1 subtype C vpr genes and to investigate selected functions of these Vpr proteins. Methodology: The HIV-1 vpr region of 58 strains was amplified, sequenced, and subtyped using phylogenetic analysis. Fragments containing natural mutations were cloned in mammalian expression vectors. A consensus subtype C vpr gene was constructed and site-directed mutagenesis was used to induce mutations in postions in which no natural mutations have been described. The functionality of all constructs was compared with the wild-type subtype B Vpr, by transfecting human 293T cell line to investigate subcellular localization, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle G2 arrest. The modulation of genes expressed in the induction of apoptosis using TaqMan Low density arrays (TLDA) was also investigated. Results: Phylogenetic analysis characterized 54 strains as HIV-1 subtype C and 4 strains as HIV-1 subtype B. The overall amino acid sequence of Vpr was conserved including motifs FPRPWL and TYGDTW, but the C-terminal was more variable. The following mutations were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis: P14I, W18C, Y47N, Q65H and Q88S. Subtype B and all natural mutants of subtype C Vpr localized to the nucleus but the W18C mutation disturbed the nuclear localization of Vpr. The cell cycle G2 arrest activity of all the mutants, as well as consensus-C, was lower than that of subtype B Vpr. All the natural mutants of subtype C Vpr induced cell cycle G2 arrest in 54.0-66.3% of the cells, while subtype B Vpr induced cell cycle G2 arrest in 71.5% of the cells. Subtype B and the natural mutant Vpr proteins induced apoptosis in a similar manner, ranging from 95.3-98.6% of transfected cells. However, an artificially designed Vpr protein containing the consensus sequences of subtype C Vpr indicated a reduced ability to induce apoptosis. While consensus-C Vpr induced apoptosis in only 82.0% of the transfected cells, the artificial mutants of Vpr induced apoptosis in 88.4 to 96.2% of the cells. The induction of apoptosis associated gene expression was similar for all constructs, indicated that apoptosis was efficiently induced through the intrinsic pathway by the mutants. Conclusion: This study indicated that both HIV-1 subtype B and C Vpr display a similar ability for nuclear localization and apoptosis induction. The induction of cell cycle G2 arrest by HIV-1 subtype B Vpr may be more robust than many subtype C Vpr proteins. The natural mutations studied in the isolates did not disturb the functions of subtype C Vpr and in some cases even potentiated the protein to induce apoptosis. Naturally occurring mutations in HIV-1 Vpr cannot be regarded as defective, since enhanced functionality would be more indicative of an adaptive role. The increased potency of the mutated Vpr proteins suggests that Vpr may increase the pathogenicity of HIV-1 by adapting apoptotic enhancing mutations. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Die virus protein R (Vpr) van Menslike Immuungebrek Virus tipe 1 (MIV-1) is ‘n bykomstige protein wat met ‘n aantal sellulêre proteine van die gasheer en ander virus proteine in wisselwerking tree. Vpr het 'n invloed op verskeie funksies onder andere die induksie van apoptose, die induksie van selsiklus G2 staking, modulering van geen uitdrukking en onderdrukking van immuun aktivering. Die funksionaliteit van subtipe C Vpr, en veral die van Suid-Afrikaanse stamme, is nie beskryf nie. Die doelwit van die studie was om die diversiteit van Suid Afrikaanse MIV-1 subtipe C vpr gene te beskryf en ook om selektiewe funksies van die Vpr proteine te ondersoek Metodiek: Die MIV-1 vpr streek van 58 stamme is vermeerder, die DNA volgordes is bepaal en die stamme is gesubtipeer deur filogenetiese analise. Fragmente met natuurlike mutasies is in ekspressie vektore gekloon. ‘n Konsensus subtipe C Vpr geen is ontwerp en mutasies in posisies waar geen natuurlike mutasies beskryf is nie, is ontwerp deur mutagenese. Die funksionaliteit van die konstrukte is met die wilde tipe subtype B vergelyk deur 293T sellyn te transfekteer en te ondersoek vir subsellulêre lokalisering, induksie van apoptose, en G2 selsiklus stilstand. Die modulering van geen uitdrukking in die induksie van apoptose is deur TLDA ondersoek. Resultate: Filogenetiese analise het 54 stamme as HIV-1 subtipe C geklassifiseer en 4 stamme as subtype B. Die Vpr aminosuur volgordes was konstant insluitend die FPRPWL en TYGDTW motiewe, maar die C-terminaal was meer variëerbaar. Deur mutagenese is die volgende mutasies ontwerp: P14I, W18C, Y47N, Q65H and Q88S. Subtipe B en al die natuurlike mutante van subtipe C het in die selkern gelokaliseer, maar die W18C mutasie het die lokalisasie versteur. Die G2 selsiklus stilstand van alle mutante en konsensus C was laer as die van subtype B. Al die natuurlike subtipe C mutante het G2 selsiklus tot stilstand gebring in 54.0-66.3% van die selle, terwyl subtype B selsiklus tot stilstand gebring het in 71.5% van die selle. Subtipe B en die natuurlike Vpr mutante het apoptose op ‘n soortgelyke wyse geinduseer, wat wissel tussen 95.3-98.6% van getransfekteerde selle. Die protein met die kunsmatig ontwerpte konsensus C volgorde het egter ‘n verlaagde vermoë gehad om apoptose te induseer. Die konsensus subtipe C het apoptose in 82.0% van getransfekteerde selle geinduseer en die kunsmatige mutante in 88.4 – 96.2% van die selle. Die induksie van die apoptose verwante geen ekspressie deur die mutante was soortgelyk as die van konsensus C en subtipe B Vpr wat ’n aangeduiding is dat apoptose effektief veroorsaak is deur die intrinsieke roete. Gevolgtrekking: Hierdie studie het aangetoon dat kern lokalisering en apoptose op ‘n soortgelyke wyse by beide MIV-1 subtipe B en C Vpr plaasvind. Die induksie van selsiklus G2 stilstand deur MIV-1 subtipe B Vpr is egter meer robuust as baie van die subtipe C Vpr proteïene. Natuurlike mutasies in MIV-1 Vpr kan nie as gebrekkig beskou word nie, aangesien beter funksionaliteit 'n aanduiding is vandie aanpasbare rol. Die verhoogde krag van die gemuteerde Vpr proteïen dui daarop dat Vpr die patogenisiteit van MIV-1 kan verbeter deur die aanpassing van mutasies. af_ZA
dc.format.extent 242 p. : ill. (mostly col.)
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch en_ZA
dc.subject Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) en_ZA
dc.subject Molecular characterization of vpr and phylogenetic analysis en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Virology en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Virology en_ZA
dc.subject Microbial mutation en_ZA
dc.subject.lcsh Viruses -- Variations en_ZA
dc.subject.other Medical Virology en_ZA
dc.title Mutagenesis and functional studies of the HIV-1 vpr gene and Vpr protein obtained from South African virus strains en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder University of Stellenbosch


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