'n Beskrywend-diagnostiese ondersoek na die voorkoms van stres onder wingerdprodusente in die Wes- en Noordkaap

Fourie, Annemarie (2011-03)

Thesis (MComm))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Farming is often perceived to be associated with an idyllic lifestyle and many city-dwellers secretly dream of owning a farm where they can escape the city and its stressful lifestyle. The reality associated with farming however is very different from the perception. Research conducted overseas found that the unique challenges farmers face in their everyday business subjects them to high levels of stress. The American Institute for Occupational Health and Safety ranks farming in the top ten percent of the most stressful occupations while research in the United Kingdom shows that the occurrence of suicide amongst farmers are significantly higher than for the rest of the population. Stress can manifest in health, emotional and physical problems and can have a dramatic impact on quality of living. This in turn negatively influences personal and work performance. Taking into account that farming plays a vital role in the global economy and in combating food shortage; the prevalence of stress amongst farmers is worrying. In South Africa little research has been conducted into the psychological wellbeing of farmers and the possible impact stress might have. Viticulture and the wine industry are major contributors to the economy and tourism industries of the Western and Northern Cape provinces. It would thus be in the interest of the country and its labour force to investigate the impact of stress on farmers in these regions and to find ways to mitigate the experience of stress. A qualitative study amongst wine growers (N=24) resulted in the identification of possible stressors along with demographic, biographic and personality symptoms that may potentially influence the impact of stress. The Agricultural Stress Questionnaire was developed considering overseas literature and information gathered from the qualitative interviews. Sense of coherence and organisational trust between farmers and management of the cellar they deliver products to, were identified as possible factors influencing the impact of stress. Quantitative research was conducted by means of questionnaires sent to a convenience sample of wine growers. The Organisational Trust Inventory was used to measure the level of organisational trust, while the Orientation to Life Questionnaire was used to evaluate sense of coherence. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was used as a measure of psychological wellbeing. In total 132 respondents were recruited from the sample of more than 1 000 wine growers. Data gathered was subjected to statistical analysis and results showed that all measuring instruments had excellent psychometric properties. This was also true for the Agricultural Stress Questionnaire that was used for the first time. Multiple regression analysis showed that organisational trust does not act as a moderator in the relationship between agricultural stress and psychological wellbeing. Sense of coherence was however found to be a strong moderator of the interaction between agricultural stress and psychological wellbeing. Some demographic and biographic factors also proved to influence the impact of agricultural stress on psychological wellbeing. Stressors were ranked to show which caused the most stress amongst South African wine growers. Proposals for possible interventions were made along with recommendations for future research.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Boerdery word dikwels geag 'n idilliese beroep te wees en menige stedelinge droom van 'n plaas waar hulle kan ontspan en vlug van die stad se stresvolle leefstyl. Die realiteit is egter ver verwyder van hierdie siening en buitelandse navorsing toon dat landbouprodusente aan hoë vlakke van stres blootgestel word vanweë uitdagings uniek aan hul beroep. Die Amerikaanse Instituut van Beroepsveiligheid en –Gesondheid plaas boerdery onder die boonste tien persent van stresvolle beroepe, en navorsing in die Verenigde Koningryk het gevind dat selfmoord onder landbouprodusente baie meer dikwels voorkom as in die res van die bevolking. Stres kan manifesteer in gesondheid-, gedrags-, en emosionele probleme en veroorsaak verlaagde lewenskwaliteit wat 'n dramatiese impak op persoonlike prestasie, maar ook werksprestasie, het. Gegewe die rol wat landbou in die globale ekonomie speel en die noodsaaklikheid van landbou vir voedselvoorsiening, is die hoë voorkoms van stres in die landbou-industrie, en die impak daarvan, 'n bron van kommer. In Suid-Afrika was die streservaring van landbouprodusente, en die uitwerking daarvan op hul sielkundige welsyn, egter nog nie die fokus van navorsing nie en dus is literatuur oor stres onder landbouprodusente in Suid-Afrika beperk. Wingerdbou en die wynbedryf dra betekenisvol by tot die ekonomie, werkskepping en toerisme in die Wes- en Noord Kaap van Suid-Afrika. Indien daar die moontlikheid bestaan dat wingerdprodusente onder die uitwerking van stres gebuk gaan, is dit dus in die belang van Suid-Afrika en die arbeidsmag om die probleem te identifiseer en die impak van stres te beperk. Na aanleiding van kwalitatiewe onderhoude met wingerdprodusente (N = 24) is „n lys van moontlike stressors geïdentifiseer, asook moontlike demografiese, biografiese en persoonlikheidsfaktore wat die impak van stres kan beïnvloed. Die Landboustressor-vraelys is ontwikkel op grond van inligting verkry uit oorsese navorsing, asook vanuit die kwalitatiewe onderhoude. Die vlak van organisasievertroue tussen wingerdprodusente en bestuur van die kelder waaraan hul lewer, asook koherensiesin, is ondersoek as faktore wat die streservaring, en die impak daarvan, kan modereer. Kwantitatiewe navorsing is uitgevoer deur 'n vraelys aan 'n gerieflikheidsteekproef wingerdprodusente te stuur. Die Organisasievertroue-vraelys is aangewend om die vlak van vertroue te evalueer, terwyl die 28-item Algemene Gesondheidsvraelys (GHQ-28) gebruik is om die sielkundige welsyn van wingerdprodusente te ondersoek. Antonovsky se Lewensoriëntasie-vraelys is gebruik om koherensiesin te meet. In totaal is 132 respondente gewerf vanuit 'n steekproef van meer as 1 000 wingerdprodusente. Die data is statisties verwerk en die resultate toon dat die psigometriese eienskappe van die meetinstrumente deurgaans bevredigend was, ook van die Landboustressor-vraelys wat die eerste keer aan statistiese ontleding onderwerp is. Meervoudige regressie het getoon dat organisasievertroue nie 'n moderator is in die interaksie tussen landboustres en geestesgesondheid nie. Koherensiesin is egter wel bevind om 'n sterk moderator in die interaksie te wees. Sekere biografiese en demografiese faktore het ook die effek van stres op geestesgesondheid beïnvloed. 'n Rangorde van stressors is saamgestel om te toon watter faktore die meeste stres onder Suid-Afrikaanse wingerdprodusente veroorsaak. Aanbevelings is gemaak ten opsigte van moontlike intervensies wat wingerdprodusente kan ondersteun in die hantering van landboustres, asook voorstelle vir toekomstige navorsing.

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