Tenure security under the Communal Property Associations Act 28 of 1996 : an analysis of establishment and management procedures with comparative reference to the Sectional Titles Act 95 of 1986

Jacobs, Petrus Jacobus (2011-03)

Thesis (LLM )-- University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis discusses the efficacy of procedures involving communal participation in the management of land by communal property associations, and how this contributes to the promotion of security of tenure as envisaged by the South African Land Reform programme. The Communal Property Associations Act 28 of 1996 (CPA Act) is aimed at regulating communal living arrangements to create security of tenure for its respective landholders. However, the general opinion of commentators in the land reform sector has continued to be that communal property institutions are ineffective and generally fail. Many assert that problems experienced are symptoms of a wider weakness relating to the institutional design of the juristic person, its regulation and the support it receives. To determine the strength of this assertion, the concept and conditions of security of tenure in South African law, and the obstacles hampering it, are investigated. Security of tenure is especially important as it provides a foundation from which land holders can exercise their rights productively. This is followed by an overview of the existing legal mechanisms for communal living arrangements that are similar to the arrangements catered for in the CPA Act. One of these arrangements, namely the Sectional Titles Act is used to compare mechanisms similar to the establishment and management procedures in the CPA Act. The main conclusion regarding establishment procedures is that many of the provisions of the CPA Act are not being implemented properly. While some institutional problems exist and must be addressed, negotiation with and guidance by the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform are necessary to overcome such problems. An inadequate establishment process will only lead to problems and conflict in the management phase that could hamper security of tenure. Communal property associations are managed by an organisation structure comprising of a juristic person, a committee and the community. The thesis shows that committee members often lack the necessary training to fulfil their duties adequately. The CPA Act also allow communal property associations too much discretion in allocating powers and functions of the committee that can lead to paralysis in decision-making processes. The Department Rural Development and Land Reform has extensive powers to monitor and intervene in matters of the association if problems exist, but in practice such measures are not resorted to. These problems create dysfunction in many communal property associations. While the CPA Act can provide security of tenure for communities, the most significant obstacle is the lack of support from the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform in implementing the provisions of the CPA Act.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis handel oor die doeltreffendheid van die prosedures rondom die deelname van gemeenskappe aan die bestuur van grond in gemeenskaplike eiendomsverenigings, en hoe dit bydra tot die bevordering van die onaantasbaarheid van grondregte, soos beoog deur die Suid-Afrikaanse grondhervormingsprogram. Die Communal Property Associations Act 28 of 1996 (CPA Wet) het ten doel om gemeenskaplike bewoning van grond te reguleer ten einde om sekerheid vir houers van grond in die hand te werk. Die heersende mening van kommentatore in die grondhervormingsektor is nietemin nog steeds dat gemeenskaplike eiendomsinstellings ondoeltreffend is, en oor die algemeen misluk. Verskeie kommentatore doen aan die hand dat die heersende probleme simptome is van onderliggende tekortkominge in die wyse waarop die regspersoon saamgestel word en hoe dit gereguleer en ondersteun word. Ten einde hierdie opvatting te deurgrond, word daar in hierdie tesis gekyk na die omstandighede waaronder onaantasbaarheid van grondregte bewerkstellig kan word in die Suid-Afrikaanse reg, en na die struikelblokke wat bestaan om heirdie doel te bereik. Onaantasbaarheid van grondregte is belangrik, veral omdat dit die basis is waarop houers van grond in staat gestel word om hul regte produktief uit te oefen. Hierna volg ‘n oorsig van die bestaande regsmeganismes vir gemeenskaplike bewoning van grond, wat soortgelyk is aan dié van die CPA Wet. Een sodanige opset is die Deeltitelswet, wat gebruik word om soortgelyke meganismes vir die totstandkoming van en die bestuursprosedures van die CPA Wet te vergelyk. Die gevolgtrekking met betrekking tot totstandkomingsprosedures is dat die bepalings van die CPA Wet nie behoorlik in werking gestel is nie. Benewens die institusionele probleme wat aangespreek moet word, is onderhandeling met en leiding deur die Departement van Landelike Ontwikkeling en Grondhervorming nodig, om bestaande struikelblokke uit die weg te ruim. ‘n Ontoereikende totstandkomingsproses sal slegs lei tot verdere probleme en geskille in die latere bestuur van die skema wanneer die skema bestuur moet word. Dit werk onsekerheid m.b.t. die grondregte in die hand. Die bestuurstruktuur van gemeenskaplike eiendomsverenigings bestaan uit ‘n regspersoon, ‘n komitee en die gemeenskap. Die tesis dui aan dat komiteelede dikwels nie voldoende opgelei is om hul funksies behoorlik te vervul nie. Die CPA Wet maak ook voorsiening vir te veel diskresionêre begoegdhede in die akte van oprigting en die bepalings omtrent die funksies van die komitee, wat die besluitnemingsproses kan lamlê. Die Departement van Plaaslike Ontwikkeling en Grondhervorming het verreikende magte m.b.t monitering en intervensie in die sake van die verenigings, waar probleme bestaan. In die praktyk word hierdie bevoegdhede egter nie aangewend soos beoog nie. Die probleme versoorsaak dat gemeenkskaplike eiendomsverenigings nie na behore funksioneer nie. Die wetsbepalings kan onaantasbaarheid van grondregte vir gemeenskappe in die hand werk, maar die grootste struikelblok is die behoorlike implementering van die wetsbepalings.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6678
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