The evaluation of larvae of Musca Domestica (common house fly) as protein source for boiler production

Pretorius, Quinton (2011-03)

Thesis (MScAgric (Animal Sciences))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Includes bibliography.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Musca domestica (common house fly) larvae meal, as protein source, for broiler production. This was done by investigating the nutritive value of house fly larvae meal together with its total tract digestibility, potential toxicity and carcass characteristics of the broilers supplemented with house fly larvae meal. The proximate analysis of house fly larvae meal show that it contained, on a dry matter basis, a gross energy value of 20.10 MJ/kg, 60.38% crude protein, 14.08% crude fat and 10.68% ash and that the house fly pupae contained a gross energy of 20.42 MJ/kg, 76.23% crude protein, 14.39% crude fat and 7.73% ash. House fly pupae meal had the closest match of amino acid profile when compared with the ideal amino acid profile required by broilers and it has arginine relative to the lysine content closer to the ideal amino acid profile than the house fly larvae meal. The essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, was found at levels of 26.25 and 36.27% of the total fats for the house fly larvae and pupae meal respectively. House fly larvae meal supplementation did not induce gizzard erosion or showed toxicity (regarding the gastro intestinal tract, immune system and organ stress) in broilers. Results revealed that house fly pupae meal had higher total tract digestibilities for most nutrients than of the house fly larvae meal. House fly larvae meal had a crude protein total tract digestibility of 69% and that of pupae meal was 79%. Both larvae and pupae meal had high amino acid total tract digestibilities of all the amino acids analysed. The house fly larvae and pupae meal had an apparent metabolizable energy (AME) value of 14.23MJ/kg and 15.15MJ/kg respectively. The larvae meal total tract crude fat and crude fibre digestibilities were 94% and 62% respectively. The pupae meal total tract crude fat and crude fibre digestibilities were 98% and 58% respectively. House fly larvae meal supplementation in a three phase feeding system significantly increased average broiler live weights at slaughter, total feed intake, cumulative feed intake as well as average daily gain (ADG) when compared to commercial maize: soya oil cake meal diet. In direct comparison of larvae inclusion levels with fishmeal in isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diet, no significant differences were observed between a 10% house fly larvae and a 10% fish meal diets regarding performance characteristic. The 25% house fly larvae meal diet yielded significantly better average broiler live weights at slaughter, total feed intake, cumulative feed intake (from the second week until slaughter) as well as average daily gain when compared to the 25% fish meal diet in the growth phases. Carcass characteristics of the 10% larvae, 10% fishmeal and commercial diets were compared. Chicks that received either the 10% house fly larvae meal or 10% fish meal supplementation produced significantly heavier carcasses and breast muscle portions than the chicks that received the commercial maize: soya oil cake meal. No treatment differences were found regarding breast and thigh muscle colour or pH. This study showed that house fly larvae meal can be regarded as a safe protein source that can be used to replace other protein sources and that has the ability to promote broiler performance without having any detrimental effects on carcass characteristics.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die studie was om die effek van Musca domestica (gewone huisvlieg) larwe meel, as ‘n protein bron, in braaikuikens te evalueer. Dit was gedoen deur die nutrient waarde van huisvlieg larwe meel saam met die totale spysvertering verteerbaarheid, moontlike toksiesiteit en karkas-eienskappe van braai kuikens te evalueer. Laboratoruim analiese toon dat huisvlieg larwe meel 20.10 MJ/kg bruto energie, 60.38% ru- protein, 14.08% ru- vet en 10.68% as bevat en huisvlieg papie meel 20.42 MJ/kg bruto energie, 76.23% ru- protein, 14.39% ru- vet en 7.73% as bevat. Huisvlieg papie meel stem die meeste ooreen met die idiale amino suur profiel soos wat benodig word deur braaikuikens en dit het ‘n arginien tot lisien verhouding wat die meeste ooreenstem met die idiale amino suur profiel in vergelyking met huis vlieg larwe meel. Die essensiele vet suur, linolien suur, was geanaliseer teen vlakke van 26.25- en 36.27% van die totale vette onderskeidelik vir huisvlieg larwe- en papie meel. Huisvlieg larwe meel vervanging het nie spiermaag erosie of enige ander toksiese effekte te veroorsaak nie. Resultate het getoon dat huisvlieg papie meel, in vergelyking met larwe meel, het ‘n hoër totale spysvertering verteerbaarheid vir meeste van die nutrient. Die huisvlieg larwe meel het ‘n totale ru- protein spysvertering verteerbaarheid van 69% en die van papie meel van 79%. Beide larwe en papie meel het hoë amino suur spysvertering verteerbaarheid. Larwe meel en papie meel het skynbare metaboliseerbare energie waardes van 14.23MJ/kg en 15.15%MJ/kg onderskeidelik. Die larwe meel het ‘n ru-vet en ru- vesel spysvertering verteerbaarheid van 94% en 62% onderskeidelik, waar die papies ‘n ru-vet en ru- vesel spysvertering verteerbaarheid van onderskeidelik 98% en 58% het. Huisvlieg larwe meel vervanging in ‘n drie fase voer stelsel het getoon om die gemiddelde braaikuiken lewende gewigte by slag, totale voer iname, sowel as die gemiddelde daaglikse toename te verhoog waneer dit vergelyk word met ‘n kommersiele mielie- soya olie koek dieet. Geen mekwaardige verskille was waargeneem toe die 10% larwe meel dieet direk met die 10% vismeel diet vergelyk was rakende enige produksie einskappe gemeet nie. Die 25% larwe meel dieet het merkwaardig beter gemiddelde braaikuiken lewende gewigte by slag, totale voer iname, sowel as die gemiddelde daaglikse toename getoon wanneer vergelyk word met die 25% vismeel dieet gedurende die verskeie groei fases. Karkas eienskappe van die 10% larwe meel, 10% vismeel en die kommersiele diete was gevergelyk. Kuikens wat 10% larwe meel en 10% vismeel in die diete ontvang het, het swaarder karkasse gelewer met swaarder borsie massas wanneer vergelyk word met die kommersiele mielie- soya olie koek dieet. Geen behandelings verskille was gevind rakende die borsie- en dy spier kleure of pH nie. Die studie toon dat huisvlieg larwe meel as ‘n veillige protein bron kan beskou word, wat gebruik kan word om ander protein bronne te vervang. Huisvlieg larwe meel het ook die vermoë om braaikuiken produksie te verhoog sonder om enige negitiewe effekte rakende die karkas eienskappe te toon nie.

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