Material models for rail pads

Heunis, Johannes Jacobus (2011-03)

Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The vibrations and noise “pollution” that rail vehicles produce have become of particular concern in recent years. More pressure is being placed on operators of trains and trams (especially those operating in urban environments) to reduce their impact on neighbouring infrastructure. This project investigated the infrastructure available for vibration and noise mitigation and generated material models for some of the materials used in these types of rail infrastructure. The most common type of rail infrastructure used in South Africa is ballasted sleepers. Rail pads are sometimes used to reduce the transmitted vibration of these sleepers; this study focused on the materials used in the manufacture of these pads. Since most of these materials can be described as resilient/viscoelastic, the study of literature regarding these materials is essential within the scope of this project. Models found in literature were adapted by the addition of a non-linear stiffness element to account for the material behaviour at higher preloads. Three commercially available materials were tested and optimisation algorithms applied to determine their material coefficients (damping and stiffness), focusing on the preload and frequency dependency of these coefficients.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die vibrasie en geraas “besoedeling” wat spoor voertuie genereer het in die in die afgelope paar jare van kritieke belang geword. Meer druk word op operateurs van treine en trems geplaas (veral die operateurs met operasies in stedelike gebiede) om hulle impak op aangrensende infrastruktuur te verminder. Hierdie projek is dus daarop gemik om te bepaal watter infrastuktuur beskikbaar is vir die vermindering van vibrasie en geraas asook die ontwikkeling van materiaal modellle vir sommige van die materiale wat gebruik word in hierdie tipes van spoor infrastruktuur. Die mees algemene spoor infrastruktuur wat gebruik word in Suid-Afrika is dwarslêers met ballas. Spoor blokke word soms gebruik om die oordrag van vibrasies te verminder vir hierdie dwarslêers en daarom het hierdie studie fokus geplaas op die materiale wat gebruik word in die vervaardiging van hierdie blokke. Aangesien die meeste van hierdie materiale beskryf kan word as veerkragtig/visco, is 'n literatuurstudie oor hierdie materiale noodsaaklik binne die bestek van hierdie projek. Modelle wat gevind is in die literatuur is aangepas deur 'n nie-lineêre styfheids element by te voeg wat voorsiening maak vir die materiale se gedrag by hoër voorspannings. Drie algemene kommersieël beskikbare materiale is getoets en optimeringsprossesse is toegepas om hulle materiaal koëffisiënte (demping en styfheid) te bepaal met die klem geplaas op die voorspanning en frekwensie afhanklikheid van hierdie koëffisiënte.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6643
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