Estimation of genetic distances and heterosis in three ostrich (Struthio camelus) breeds for the improvement of productivity

Davids, Annelin Henriehetta (2011-03)

Thesis (MScAgric (Animal Sciences))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Includes bibliography.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to characterize the three ostrich breeds available as genetic resource in South Africa, namely the South African Black (SAB), Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) and the Kenyan Redneck (KR), and their respective crosses. Growth, slaughter traits and reproduction of these ostriches were recorded at Oudtshoorn Research Farm in the Western Cape of South Africa. Individual non-linear regressions (Gompertz) were fitted to the data of 390 purebred and 41 crossbred ostriches, using the SAS NLIN function. Heterosis was estimated for each parameter of the Gompertz model. The estimated adult weight (Aparameter) of the ZB (147 kg) and the KR breeds (148 kg) were higher than that of the SAB breed (129 kg). The overall growth rate (B-parameter) of the ZB breed (0.0075) and the SAB breed (0.0080) was lower than that of the KR (0.0150). The age at maximum weight gain (C-parameter) was higher for the ZB breed (226 days) compared to the SAB (198 days) and the KR (194 days). Heterosis for the A-parameter was estimated at -6.2% and at -12% for the C-parameter. The slaughter traits studied were slaughter weight (SLW), carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (DP), fan fillet weight (FFW), pH0, pH24, drip loss % (DL%), cooking loss % (CL%), tenderness and meat colour traits. Differences were observed between the means for SLW of the SAB (86.5 kg) and ZB (93.9 kg). Mean DP of the KR breed (52.5%) was increased relative to the low DP of their SAB contemporaries (48.8%). The sire lines (ZB and KR) and crosses were heavier than the SAB (dam line), whereas the crosses resembled the dam line for meat quality traits. Means for pH24 also differed, with higher values for the sire lines (ZB – 6.36; KR – 6.4) relative to the SAB (5.85). The instrumental b* colour value also differed between the SAB (9.4) and KR (6.9). Records used for assessing the reproduction and body measurements of purebred and crossbred dams were 428 in total. Traits analyzed were, total egg production (TEP), the number of fertile eggs, number dead in shell chicks, hatchability and chick production (CP), the time to lay, live weight, front chest circumferences as well as tail circumference. The ZB and KR were heavier in live weight and of larger body measurements than the SAB, whereas the SAB exhibited superior reproduction performance in comparison with the ZB and KR breeds. Derived heterosis estimates amounted to 2.2% for tail circumference, 12% for TEP, 12% for hatchability and 19% for CP. Genetic variation between and within the breeds were determined utilizing 19 microsatellite markers. Significant molecular genetic differences were observed between the three breeds. The SAB and ZB (Fst = 0.10 and Nei = 0.49) were genetically most similar, whereas the genetic distance between the KR and ZB breeds were furthest (Fst = 0.13 and Nei = 0.61). The SAB breed exhibited the highest heterozygosity within its population and the ZB the lowest heterozygosity. These results contribute to a better understanding of the utilization of the distinct ostrich breeds for commercial production.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die verskille tussen drie volstruisrasse wat tans in Suid Afrika mee geboer word te karakteriseer, naamlik die “South African Black” (SAB), “Zimbabwean Blue” (ZB) en die “Kenyan Redneck” (KR) en hulle onderskeie kruisse. Rekords van die groei-, slag- en reproduksie eienskappe van die volstruise was by Oudtshoorn Navorsingsplaas in die Wes-Kaap aangeteken. Individuele nie-lineêre regressies (Gompertz) is op die data van 390 suiwerras en 42 kruisgeteelde volstruise gepas, met die gebruik van die “NLIN” prosedure van SAS, (2006). Heterose is beraam vir elke parameter van die Gompertz model. Die beraamde volwasse gewig (A-parameter) van die ZB (147 kg) en die KR ras (148 kg) was hoër as die van die SAB ras (129 kg). Die totale groeitempo (B-parameter) van die ZB ras (0.0075) en die SAB ras (0.0080) was laer as die van die KR (0.0150). Die ouderdom by maksimum groei (C-parameter) was hoër vir die ZB ras (226 dae) in vergelyking met die SAB (198 dae) en die KR (194 dae). Heterose vir die A-parameter was beraam teen -6.2% en teen -12% vir die C-parameter. Die slageienskappe wat ondersoek was, was slagmassa (SLW), karkasmassa (CW), uitslag persentasie (DP), “fan fillet” massa (FFW), pH0, pH24, drupverlies % (DL%), kookverlies % (CL%), sagtheid en kleureienskappe. Beduidendende verskille is waargeneem tussen die gemiddeldes vir SLW vir die SAB (86.5 kg) en ZB (93.9 kg). Gemiddelde DP van die KR ras (52.5%) was beter as die van die SAB ras (48.8%). Die mannetjielyne (ZB en KR) en die kruisse was swaarder as die SAB (wyfielyn), en die kruise was vergelykbaar met die wyfielyn vir vleiskwaliteit eienskappe. Gemiddeldes vir die pH24 het verskil, met hoër waardes vir die vaar lyne (ZB – 6.36; KR – 6.4) relatief tot die SAB (5.85). Die instrumentale b* kleurwaarde het ook verskil tussen die SAB (9.4) en KR (6.9). ‘n Totaal van 428 rekords is gebruik om reproduksie en liggaamsmetings van die suiwer en kruisteelwyfies te ondersoek. Reproduksie eienskappe ge-analiseer was: die aantal broeisels, totale eierproduksie (TEP), die aantal vrugbare eiers, die aantal kuikens dood in dop, uitbroeibaarheid, kuiken produksie (CP), tyd tot produksie van die eerste eier, volwasse gewig, voorbors omtrek, sowel as, kruisomtrek. Die ZB en KR rasse was swaarder as die SAB, en het groter liggaamsmetings gehad. Die SAB het beter reproduksie in vergelyking met die ZB- en KR rasse gehad. Heterose beramings was 2.2% vir kruisomtrek, 12% vir TEP, 12% vir uitbroeibaarheid en 19% vir CP. Genetiese variasie tussen en binne die rasse was vasgestel deur die gebruik van 19 mikrosatelliete merkers. Beduidende genetiese verskille op ‘n molekulêre vlak was waargeneem tussen die drie rasse. Die SAB en ZB (Fst = 0.10 en Nei = 0.49) was geneties meer gelyk terwyl die KR en ZB genetiese verder verwyder is (Fst = 0.13 en Nei = 0.61). Die SAB ras het die hoogste heterosigositeit binne populasie getoon, en die ZB die laagste. Hierdie resultate dra by tot ‘n beter begrip van die gebruik van die drie rasse in kommersïele produksie.

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