The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the muscles of cultured yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) at different anatomical locations

Burke, Andrew Brian (2011-03)

Thesis (MPhil (Animal Sciences))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Includes bibliography.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The proximate composition of food products, and more importantly fat content and fatty acid composition, is of growing concern to consumers. It is also of concern to fish processors because of the effects that various levels of proteins, lipids, water and ash have on the cold storage potential and texture of fish. A total of 17 Seriola lalandi (yellowtail) were harvested from a net cage production unit off the coast of Port Elizabeth. Proximate, fatty acid and mineral analysis were conducted on five areas on the fillet, as well as on the whole fillet as a control. Differences (P < 0.05) were found in the water and fat content between dorsal and ventral samples. The highest amount (% wet weight) of moisture (71.5 ± 0.4%) was observed in the caudal region of the fish. This region was also found to contain the lowest levels of fat (4.3 ± 0.23%). Protein levels did not differ (P > 0.05) between sample regions. The total fat content (g/100 g wet tissue) of the whole fillet (A; control) was 5.3 ± 0.11 of which saturated fatty acids (SFA) accounted for 35.5 ± 1.13%, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for 25.7 ± 0.51% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for 38.2±0.88%. The most predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid, C16:0) with levels reaching 24.2 ± 1.25% in the mid belly area, sample section E (mid ventral). The data shows that one could use either section B (anterior dorsal), section D (mid dorsal) or section F (dorsal and ventral posterior sections combined) as a representative sample of the whole fillet when doing proximate analysis. The belly sections of the fish differed significantly (P < 0.05) to the whole fillet. There was too much variation between samples with regards to the mineral and fatty acid analysis to identify a section that is representative of the whole fillet. The edible portion of the farmed yellowtail examined in this study contained eicosapentonic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of 0.24% and 10.90% respectively which is notably lower than other marine fish species. However, this could be linked to the feed that these specific yellowtail were fed, as the lipid profile of the diet has been shown to have an effect on the lipid profile of the fish.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die algemene samestelling van voedsel produkte, asook die vet inhoud en vetsuur samestelling daarvan, wek deesdae al meer besorgdheid by verbruikers. Dit is ook belangrik vir vis verwerkers as gevolg van die effek wat verskillende vlakke van proteïene, lipiede, water en minerale het op die tekstuur van vis asook die potensiaal om vis in verkoelers te stoor. ‘n Totaal van 17 Seriola lalandi (geelstert) is geöes vanuit ‘n net-hok eenheid op die kus van Port Elizabeth. Proksimale, vetsuur en mineraal analises was uitgevoer op vyf areas van die filet sowel as op die heel filet as ‘n kontrole. Verskille (P < 0.05) is opgemerk in die water en vet inhoud tussen die dorsale en ventrale monsters. Die hoogste voginhoud (71.5 ± 0.4%) was opgemerk in die stert gedeelte van die vis en hierdie gedeelte het ook die laagste vetinhoud gehad (4.3 ± 0.23%). Proteïen vlakke het nie verskil tussen enige van die monsters nie (P < 0.05). Die totale vetinhoud (g/100 g nat weefsel) van die heel filet (A, kontrole) was 5.3 ± 0.11 waarvan versadigde vetsure (SFA) 35.5 ± 1.13%, monoönversadigde vetsure (MUFA) 25.7 ± 0.51%, en polionversadigde vetsure (PUFA) 38.2 ± 0.88% uitgemaak het. Die oorheersende versadigde vetsuur was palmitiese suur (heksadekanoïese suur, C16:0) wat vlakke van 24.2 ± 1.25% bereik het in seksie E (middel ventraal). Die data wys dat seksie B (voorste dorsaal), seksie D (middel dorsaal) of seksie F (agterste ventraal en dorsaal) gebruik kan word as verteenwoordigende monsters van die heel filet wanneer proksimale analise uitgevoer word. Die maag gedeeltes van die vis het beduidend verskil (P < 0.05) van die heel filet. Die resultate van die mineraal en vetsuur analises het te veel gevarieer en daarom kon geen verteenwoordigende seksie van die heel filet geïdentifiseer word nie. Die eetbare dele van akwakultuur geelstert wat in hierdie studie ondersoek is, bevat 0.24% EPA en 10.90% DHA wat heelwat laer is as die van ander marine vis spesies. Hierdie verskil kan moontlik toegeskryf word aan die voer wat aan die geelstert gegee is aangesien dit voorheen bewys is dat die lipied profiel van die dieet ‘n uitwerking het op die lipied profiel van vis.

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