Analysis and evaluation of brush-DC equivalent controlled multiphase cage induction machine drive

Gule, Nkosinathi (2011-03)

Thesis (PhD (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The multiphase induction machine drive has been under investigation for the last half century. Although it offers several attractive advantages over the conventional three-phase induction machine drive, it is restricted to highly specialised applications. One aspect of the multiphase induction machine drive is the complexity of the control algorithm for decoupled flux and torque control. The complexity, arising from the required coordinate transformations, increases with increase in the number of phases of the machine. Recently, a method that allows the control of a six-phase induction machine drive without any coordinate transformations was developed and tested. This new control technique allows the control of the machine to be similar to that of dc machines through the use of special trapezoidal-shaped stator current waveforms. These stator phase current waveforms consist of field (flux) and torque current components, with flat-topped amplitudes allowing a stator phase to act alternately in time as either a flux or a torque producing phase. The idea is to have a number of stator phases acting as flux producing phases, whilst the remaining phases act as torque producing phases at each time instance. This dissertation takes a further step in the research on this particular control technique. As the control method relates directly to the brush-dc machine operation, in this dissertation, the control method is defined as a “brush-dc equivalent” (BDCE) control method. First, in this dissertation, a simple analytical method is developed to determine a defined optimal ratio of the number of field to the number of torque phases of a multiphase induction machine that utilises trapezoidal stator current waveforms. The method is applied to induction machines with up to fifteen stator phases. Finite element analysis is used to verify the validity of the developed criterion and to verify the square-like air gap flux density. Secondly, in this dissertation, an analytical method for predicting and evaluating the rotor bar current waveform of a cage multiphase induction machine is proposed. The method is based on the Fourier transform and the winding function theory under linear condition assumptions. The method also allows for the calculation of the electromagnetic torque and rotor bar losses. Skin effect is considered in the calculation of the rotor bar resistance of the machine. Again, finite element analysis is used to verify the analytically calculated results. The developed method can be expanded and used to evaluate the rotor current waveform of any multiphase induction machine supplied with any stator current waveforms. The BDCE control method is implemented on a prototype nine-phase cage-rotor induction machine drive. A nine-phase inverter and control system are developed for supplying the nine-phase induction machine with the trapezoidal stator current waveforms. Rotor current waveform measurements are taken on a specially designed rotor to verify the analytically predicted waveform. The linear relationship of the developed torque and torque current of the proposed BDCE control method is verified through measurements. Through the comparison of analytical calculated results with finite element calculated and measured results, it is shown in this dissertation that the developed analytical techniques can be used in the design and performance analysis of multiphase induction machines. Also, from the results, it is clear that the new control technique works remarkably well even in the flux weakening region. However, outstanding aspects, such as efficiency and generated torque quality of the proposed drive still need to be investigated further.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die multifase induksiemasjien aandryfstelsel word in die laaste halwe eeu al in navorsing ondersoek. Alhoewel dit verskeie aantreklike voordele bied bo die konvensionele driefase induksiemasjien aandryfstelsel, is dit beperk tot hoogs gespesialiseerde aanwendings. Een aspek van die multifase induksiemasjien aandryfstelsel is die kompleksiteit van die beheer algoritme vir ontkoppelde vloed en draaimoment beheer. Die kompleksiteit, wat voortspruit uit die vereiste koördinaat transformasies, neem toe met toename in die aantal fases van die masjien. Onlangs is 'n metode wat die beheer van ’n sesfase induksiemasjien sonder enige koördinaat transformasies doen, ontwikkel en getoets. Hierdie nuwe beheertegniek maak die beheer van die masjien soortgelyk aan dié van GS masjiene deur die gebruik van spesiale trapezium-vormige statorstroom golfvorms. Hierdie stator fasestroom golfvorms bestaan uit veld- (vloed-) en draaimoment-stroom komponente met plat amplitudes, sodat 'n statorfase om die beurt in tyd optree as óf' ’n vloed of 'n draaimoment genereerde fase. Die idee is om 'n aantal statorfases te hê wat as vloed genereerde fases dien, terwyl die oorblywende fases as draaimoment genereerde fases optree op enige tydstip. Hierdie tesis neem 'n verdere stap in die navorsing op hierdie spesifieke beheertegniek. Met die beheermetode wat direk verband hou met borsel-GS masjien werking, word in hierdie proefskrif die beheermetode as 'n "borsel-GS ekwivalente" ["brush-DC equivalent" (BDCE)] beheermetode gedefinieer. In die eerste plek word in hierdie proefskrif 'n eenvoudige analitiese metode ontwikkel om ’n gedefinieerde optimale verhouding van die aantal veld tot die aantal draaimoment fases van 'n multifase induksiemasjien te bepaal, wat van trapesoïdale statorstroom golfvorms gebruik maak. Die metode word toegepas op induksiemasjiene met tot vyftien statorfases. Eindige element analise is gebruik om die geldigheid van die ontwikkelde kriterium te verifieer en om die vierkantvormige luggaping vloeddigtheid te verifieer. In die tweede plek word in hierdie proefskrif 'n analitiese metode vir die voorspelling en evaluering van die rotorstaafstroom golfvorm van 'n kourotor multifase induksiemasjien voorgestel. Die metode is gebaseer op die Fourier transform en die wikkelingsfunksie teorie onder lineêre-toestand aannames. Die metode wend hom ook daartoe tot die berekening van die elektromagnetiese draaimoment en rotorstaafverliese. Die huideffek word in ag geneem in die berekening van die rotorstaafweerstand van die masjien. Weereens is eindige element analise gebruik om die analitiese berekende resultate te verifieer. Die ontwikkelde metode kan uitgebrei en gebruik word om die rotorstroom golfvorm van van enige multifase induksiemasjien te evalueer wat gevoer word met enige statorstroom golfvorms. Die BDCE beheermetode is toegepas op 'n prototipe negefase kourotor induksiemasjien. 'n Negefase omsetter en beheerstelsel is ontwikkel vir die toevoer van die trapesoïdale statorstroom golfvorms aan die negefase induksiemasjien. Die rotorstroomgolfvorm metings is geneem op 'n spesiaal ontwerpte rotor om die analitiese voorspelde golfvorm te verifieer. Die lineêre verwantskap tussen die ontwikkelde draaimoment en draaimomentstroom van die voorgestelde BDCE beheermetode is geverifieer deur metings. Deur die analitiese berekende resultate met die eindige element berekende en gemete resultate te vergelyk, wys hierdie proefskrif dat die ontwikkelde analitiese tegnieke gebruik kan word in die ontwerp en werkverrigting analise van ’n multifase induksiemasjien. Vanuit die resultate is dit ook duidelik dat die nuwe beheertegniek besonder goed werk, selfs in die vloedverswakking spoedgebied. Egter, uitstaande aspekte soos effektiwiteit en genereerde draaimoment kwaliteit van die voorgestelde aandryfstelsel moet nog verder ondersoek word.

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