β-cell response to high fat diet induced metabolic demands in the obese Wistar rat

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dc.contributor.advisor Muller, Christo John Frederick en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisor Page, Benedict en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisor Cerf, Marlon Eugene en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Roux, Candice Rene en_ZA
dc.contributor.other University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Biomedical Sciences. en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2011-01-27T08:56:43Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2011-03-14T08:08:51Z
dc.date.available 2011-01-27T08:56:43Z en_ZA
dc.date.available 2011-03-14T08:08:51Z
dc.date.issued 2011-03 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/6454
dc.description Thesis (MScMedSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2011. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction: A westernized diet rich in saturated fats and sugars, together with a sedentary lifestyle, has contributed to the dramatic increase in obesity during the last decade (Zimmett et al, 2001; Wild et al, 2004). Obesity is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance which are major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) (Zimmet et al, 2001, Kahn et al, 2006; Schröder et al, 2007). High-fat feeding in rodents induces symptoms similar to the human metabolic syndrome without progression to T2D (Woods et al, 2002; Weir and Bonner-Weir, 2007). The addition of fructose to a high-fat diet exacerbates the insulin resistance and leads to impaired pancreatic function of insulin secretion and glucose intolerance (Basciano et al, 2005; Stanhope et al, 2009). Aims: The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a high-fat and sucrose/fructose diet on glucose metabolism, the development of insulin resistance and β-cell dynamics. Methods: Weanling Wistar rats were randomized into two study groups; study one over an experimental period for three months and study two for twelve months. Each study consisted of a control group that received standard rat chow and water; and two experimental groups receiving either a high-fat diet and water (HFD) or a café diet consisting of HFD with the addition of 15% sucrose/fructose (CFD). Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), glucose stimulated insulin secretion rates and 2-deoxy-[3H]-D-glucose uptake in muscle, liver and fat were measured. The pancreata were harvested for immunohistochemical labeling of β-cells (insulin), α-cells (glucagon), GLUT2 (glucose transport) and MIB5 (proliferation). Samples of the pancreata were also collected for electron microscopy. Results and discussion: Feeding Wistar rats a CFD induced obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. By twelve months the rats had an impaired glucose response with increased IVGTT peak values, area under the curve (AUC) values and glucose clearance rates. Concomitantly, the glucose stimulated insulin secretion rate (GS-ISR) was attenuated. Stimulated glucose disposal as measured by 2-deoxy-[3H]-D-glucose uptake was reduced in muscle and adipose tissue at three months. By twelve months, due to the age of the rats, stimulated glucose uptake declined compared to three months with no difference between groups. After three months the diets had no observable effect on the islets using light microscopy. However, by twelve months morphological changes were observed in both the HFD and CFD groups. In the HFD group large hypertrophied irregular islets with fibrous changes were observed. In the CFD group these morphological changes were more prominent with fibrous segregation and disruption of the normal endocrine arrangement. In addition, the presence of inflammatory cells within the affected islets is consistent with T2D. Conclusion: High-fat diet fed to Wistar rats induced obesity, abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. The addition of sucrose/fructose to a high-fat diet exacerbated the insulin resistance and resulted in glucose intolerance and mild hyperglycemia. Morphological changes in the large islets were observed which are consistent with the development of T2D. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding: ‘n Verwesterde dieët, ryk aan versadigde vette en suikers tesame met 'n passiewe lewenstyl, het bygedra tot die dramatiese verhoging in vetsug gedurende die laaste dekade (Zimmett et al, 2001; Wild et al, 2004). Vetsug word met dislipidemie en insulienweerstandigheid geassosieer wat hoof risikofaktore is vir die ontwikkeling van tipe 2 diabetes (T2D) (Zimmet et al, 2001; Kahn et al, 2006; Schröder et al, 2007). Hoë-vet voeding in knaagdiere induseer simptome soortgelyk aan menslike metaboliese sindroom sonder die ontwikkeling van T2D (Woods et al, 2002; Weir and Bonner-Weir, 2007). Die byvoeging van fruktose tot 'n hoë-vet dieët vererger insulienweerstandigheid en lei tot verswakte pankreas funksie, insuliensekresie en glukoseintoleransie (Basciano et al, 2005; Stanhope et al, 2009). Doelwitte: Die doelwitte van die studie was om die effek van hoë-vet en sukrose/fruktose voeding op glukosemetabolisme, die ontwikkeling van insulienweerstandigheid en β-sel dinamika te bepaal. Metodes: Gespeende Wistar rotte was in twee groepe gerandomiseer; studie een oor ʼn tydperk van drie maande en studie twee oor ʼn tydperk van twaalf maande onderskeidelik. Elke studie het 'n kontrole groep met standaard rot kos en water (control); en twee experimentele diëte wat of ʼn hoë-vet dieët en water (HFD) of 'n kafeedieët groep wat die HFD met die byvoeging van 15% sukrose/fruktose in hul drink water (CFD) ontvang. Fastende glukose en insulien, binneaarse glukose toleransie toets (IVGTT), glukose gestimuleerde insulien sekresie tempo en 2-deoxi-[3H]-D-glukose opname in spier, lewer en vet is gebruik om die effek van die dieët op glukosemetabolisme te bepaal. Die pankreata is uitgehaal vir immunohistochemiese identifisering van β-selle (insulien), α-selle (glukagoon), GLUT2 (glukose transport) en MIB5 (proliferasie). Monsters van die pankreata was ook vir elektronmikroskopie versamel. Resultate en bespreking: Voeding van ʼn CFD aan Wistar rotte induseer vetsug, insulienweerstandigheid en glukose-intoleransie Teen twaalf maande toon die rotte 'n verswakte respons tot glukose met verhoogde IVGTT piekwaardes, AUC waardes en glukose opruimingswaardes. Terselfdetyd is die glukose gestimuleerde insuliensekresie tempo (GS-ISR) ook verswak. Gestimuleerde glukose opruiming, soos deur 2-deoxi-[3H]-D-glukose opname bepaal, was verlaag in spier en vetweefsel teen drie maande. Teen twaalf maande, weens die ouderdom van die rotte, is die gestimuleerde glukose opname verlaag in vergelyking met drie maande sonder 'n verskil tussen groepe. Na drie maande kon geen sigbare morfologiese verskille met ligmikroskopie tussen die diëte waargeneem word nie. Teen twaalf maande is morfologiese verskille waargeneem in beide die HFD en die CFD groepe. In die HFD groep is groot hipertrofiese onreëlmatige eilande met fibrotiese verandering waargeneem. In die CFD groep was die morfologiese verandering meer gevorder met fibrotiese onderverdeling en ontwrigting van die normale endokriene rangskikking. Die teenwoordigheid van inflammatoriese selle in die geaffekteerde eilande is verenigbaar met T2D. Afleiding: Die voer van 'n hoë-vet dieët aan Wistar rotte veroorsaak vetsug, abdominale adipositeit en insulienweerstandigheid. Die byvoeging van sukrose/ fruktose tot die hoë-vet dieët vererger die insulienweerstandigheid en veroorsaak glukoseintoleransie en matige hiperglukemie. Morfologiese veranderings in die groter eilande was verenigbaar met T2D. en_ZA
dc.format.extent vxii. 103 p. : col. ill.
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch en_ZA
dc.subject Insulin resistance en_ZA
dc.subject Obesity and Type 2 diabetes en_ZA
dc.subject High-fat diet en_ZA
dc.subject Type 2 diabetes en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Anatomy en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Anatomy en_ZA
dc.subject Glucose metabolism -- Effect of high fat diet on en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Histology en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Histology en_ZA
dc.subject.lcsh Insulin resistance -- Animal models en_ZA
dc.subject.lcsh Rats as laboratory animals en_ZA
dc.subject.other Biomedical Sciences en_ZA
dc.title β-cell response to high fat diet induced metabolic demands in the obese Wistar rat en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder University of Stellenbosch


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