n Opvoedkundig-verantwoordbare kurrikulummodel vir formele skoolonderwys in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika : 'n fundamenteel-opvoedkundige ondersoek

Van der Westhuizen, Gert Jacobus (1995)

Proefskrif (D. Ed.) -- Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 1995.

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die opvoedkundige verantwoording van die skoolkurrikulum is 'n prioriteitsaangeleentheid in 'n gemeenskap wat vir sy kinders omgee en hulle deur opvoedende onderwys tot selfrealisering en geestelike volwassenheid wil begelei. In hierdie sin, dui opvoedkundige verantwoordbaarheid op voldoening aan die lewenswaardes wat deur die betrokke gemeenskap as kosbaar en navolgenswaardig beskou word. Die doel van hierdie studie is om tot dieper insig en begrip van die problematiek rondom opvoedkundige verantwoordbaarheid binne die konteks van die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing te kom en 'n model voor te stel vir die ontwerp van 'n opvoedkundig-verantwoordbare kurrikulum vir Suid-Afrika. Met die verskuiwing in denke oor opvoeding en onderwys van die ontologiese na die funksionele, word toenemend vrae gestel na die doel en wese van opvoeding binne die werklikheidskonteks waarin dit verloop. In funksionele denke val die klem op die ontleding van die funksies eerder as die eienskappe van voorwerpe en prosesse. Omdat die funksionele denke soek na die verhouding tussen sake, word die synsvraag vervang met die sinsvraag want dit is in die aard van sy verhoudinge met ander verskynsels dat 'n bepaalde verskynsel sy sin ontvang. So gesien, kan opvoedkundige verantwoordbaarheid slegs binne die partikuliere politiese, sosiale en ekonomiese kultuurkonteks volledig begryp, verklaar en verantwoord word. Menslike handelinge, keuses en voorkeure word beter verstaan en verklaar in die betekeniskonteks waarin dit voltrek word. In die funksionele denke word die mens, sy handelinge en sy werkwyses (insluitend kurrikulering) nie in isolasie beskou nie. Die klem val derhalwe ten opsigte van kurrikulering op die funksionele samehang van die totale stelsel waarin die kurrikulum tot stand kom en geYmplementeer word. Die wese van opvoeding le nie soseer in die aantoonbare essensies daarvan nie, maar in die bedoelde funksies binne die partikuliere leefwereldkonteks. So gesien, gaan dit in hierdie studie nie net oor kennis wat universeel geldig is nie, maar veral oor kennis wat kontekstueel bruikbaar is. 'n Verdere belangrike verskuiwing in denke wat die kurrikulum direk raak, is die verskuiwingvanaf 'n onafhanklike wetenskapbenadering na een van sosiale mede-verantwoordelikheid waarin alle belanghebbendes oor die inhoud en betekenis van opvoedkundige verantwoordbaarheid besin en oar die getroue uitlewing daarvan waak. Teenoor die opvatting dat die kurrikuleerder eensydig en objektief oar die kurrikulum kan en mag besluit, staan die besef dat alle belanghebbendes 'n reg het om aangehoor te word en daardeur inspraak kry in besluitneming aangaande die kurrikulum. Die essensie van opvoedkundige verantwoordbaarheid lê waarskynlik in 'n gesonde balans tussen ontologiese denke oar die kurrikulum, wat vra na die universele kenmerke van opvoedende onderwys, en funksionele denke wat opvoeding en onderwys binne die partikuliere, kultuurhistoriese konteks oorweeg. In die funksionele denke gaan dit nie net om wat opvoedende onderwys is nie, maar wat die funksie en sin van opvoedende onderwys is. In hierdie navorsing word die ontwerp van 'n opvoedkundig-verantwoordbare kurrikulum binne die konteks van sosiale medeverantwoordelikheid oorweeg. Opvoedkundige verantwoordbaarheid kom aan die orde binne die werklikheidsbeskouing van die gemeenskap waarin die kurrikulum geYmplementeer word. Derhalwe moet daardie gemeenskap se waardes en strewes in die kurrikulum neerslag vind. Demokratiese inspraak en mede-besluitneming word as voorvereistes beskou om die legitimiteit en mede-eienaarskap van die kurrikulum te verseker. Gevolglik is hierdie navorsing nie gerig op die volledige uitwerk van 'n opvoedkundig-verantwoordbare kurrikulum nie, maar op die voorhou van 'n voorbeeld of model vir die ontwerp van 'n opvoedkundig-verantwoordbare kurrikulum wat oor die nodige soepelheid beskik om te kan voorsien in die diverse onderwysbehoeftes van Suid-Afrika.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The educational accountability of the school curriculum is a matter of priority for a community which cares for its children and wishes to conduct them through education to selfrealisation and spiritual maturity. In this sense educational accountability entails the nurturing of values which are cherished by the community. The purpose of this study is not only to arrive at a deeper understanding of the problem of educational accountability within the context of the South African community but also to propose a model for the design of an educationally sound curriculum for South Africa. With the shift in thinking on education and teaching from the ontological to functionality, questions are increasingly being asked about the purpose and nature of education as seen within the context of the real world. In functional thinking the analysis of the functions is emphasised rather than the characteristics of objects and processes. Because functional thinking pursues the relation between phenomena, the question of being is replaced by the question of meaning, because it is in relation to other phenomena that a particular phenomenon derives its meaning. Seen in this light, educational accountability can be fully understood, explained and accounted for only within its particular political, social and economical context. Human activities, choices and preferences can best be understood and explained within relevant contexts. In functional thinking man, his activities and modus operandi (including curriculation) are not regarded in isolation. The emphasis with regard to curriculation therefore falls on the functional coherence of the total system within which the curriculum is developed and implemented. The essence of education is to be found not so much in manifestations, but in the intended functions within the particular context of its reality. Seen from this perspective, this study is not concerned only with knowledge which is universally valid, but focuses on knowledge which can be useful within a specific context. Another important shift in thinking which directly affects the curriculum, is that from an independent scientific approach to one of social co-responsibility in which all roleplayers consider the content and meaning of educational accountability and to ensure that these aimsare realised. In contrast to the belief that the curriculator can and may make decisions regarding the curriculum unilaterally and objectively, there is the realisation that all those involved have a right to be heard and to participate in decision-making regarding the curriculum. The essence of educational accountability probably lies in striking a healthy balance between ontological thinking on the curriculum, which involves the universal characteristics of education, and functional thinking, which approaches education and teaching within a particular, cultural-historical context. Functional thinking concerns not only what effective education is, but also what the function and purpose of education are. In this research the design of an educationally sound curriculum within the context of social co-responsibility is considered. Educational accountability is focused upon within the world view of the community where the curriculum is to be introduced. For this reason the values and aspirations of that community must be embodied in the curriculum. Democratic participation in deliberations and decision-making are regarded as prerequisites for assuring the legitimacy and co-ownership of the curriculum. Consequently this research is not aimed at a full exposition of an educationally sound curriculum, but at providing an example or model for the design of an educationally sound curriculum which is flexible enough to provide for the diverse educational needs of South Africa.

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