Taxonomic studies in Pelargonium, section Hoarea (Geraniaceae)

Marais, Elizabeth Maria, 1945- (1994-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 1994.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Fifty nine species were studied in this taxonomic treatment of section Hoarea (Sweet) DC. of the genus Pelargonium L'Herit., which was last revised by Knuth in 1912. The majority of species occur in the winter rainfall area of the south-western Cape, but some species occur in the eastern Cape, a region of winter and summer rainfall. A few species also occur in the summer rainfall area in the central Karoo. Morphological, leaf anatomical, palynological and geographical data were studied in order to delimit the taxa and to determine their relationships. Eight new species were described and several name changes were made. Diagnostic features of the section are the regularly or turnip-shaped tubers with numerous dark brown peeling tunics or periderms and apically a short flattened stem from which the leaves and scape emerge. The zygomorphic flowers are almost sessile, because the pedicels are very short (0,5--1 mm) and the hypanthia long (6--100 mm). A large variation occurs in leaf form and floral structure, and the section is divided in 14 different floral groups, mainly based on the structure of the androecium and the tectum of the pollen grains, although petal form and size are also considered in clustering the species. Section Hoarea with its deciduous geophytes and sometimes extremely zygomorphic flowers, exhibits advanced morphological characters. Because of the large variation in the structure of the androecium, pollination biology was probably one of the major driving forces in the evolution of the section, and the annual rainfall plays an important role in the distribution patterns of the different species.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Neen en vyftig spesies is bestudeer in hierdie taksonomiese ondersoek van seksie Hoarea (Sweet) DC. van die genus Pelargonium L'Herit., wat laas deur Knuth (1912) hersien is. Die meerderheid van die spesies kom in die winterreenstreek van die suidwes Kaap voor, maar sommige spesies word ook in die Oos-Kaap, wat 'n winter- en somerreenstreek is, aangetref. Enkele spesies kom in die somerreenstreek van die sentrale Karoo voor. Morfologiese, blaaranatomiese, palinologiese en geografiese data is bestudeer om die verskillende taksons af te baken, en terselfdertyd verwantskappe tussen die onderskeie spesies te bepaal. Agt nuwe spesies is beskryf en verskeie naamsveranderinge is gemaak. Diagnostiese kenmerke van die seksie is die reelmatiggevormde of raapvormige wortelknol met verskeie afskilferende donkerbruin periderms en apikaal 'n verkorte stingel waaruit blare en 'n bloeispil groei. Die sigomorfe blomme is byna sittend, aangesien die blomstele uiters kort is (0,5--1 mm) en die hipantiums relatief lank (6-- 100 mm). 'n Groot variasie in blaarvorm en blomstruktuur kom voor, en die seksie word in 14 verskillende blomvorms verdeel. Hierdie blomvorms is hoofsaaklik gebaseer op die struktuur van die andresium en tektum van die stuifmeelkorrels, alhoewel kroonblaarvorm en -grootte ook 'n rol gespeel het in die onderverdeling van die seksie. Seksie Hoarea met sy bladwisselende geofiete en soms uiters sigomorfe blomme, vertoon gevorderde morfologiese kenmerke. Die groot variasie in die struktuur van die andresium dui op 'n moontlike prominente rol wat die bestuiwingsbiologie gespeel het in die evolusie van die seksie, en die jaarlikse reenval speel 'n belangrike rol in die verspreidingspatrone van die verskillende spesies.

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