Sielkundige kontrak : wedersydse verwagtings tydens die aanvangsfase van militer-akademiese studie

Beukes, Johannes Abraham (1994-11)

Tesis (M. Com.)--Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 1994.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Like many oth.er private and public entities, the Faculty of Military Science of the University of Stellenbosch has to deal with a large number of newcomers every year. As is the case at other institutions, newcomers to the Faculty experience adjustment problems in their new work environment. These problems lead to frustration, dissatisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity which, in turn, may result in poor academic performances. One way of eliminating these problems could be to aspire towards a two-way psychological contract upon arrival of newcomers. This entails matching individual needs, abilities and skills with post and organisational requirements. A literature study indicated that new entrants experience a reality shock when confronted the first time by the gap between, on the one hand, expectations and dreams and, on the other, reality. It was also found that recruitment methods in the military environment often embrace rushed contracting and therefore inadequate discussion of each party's expectations. The literature also shows that, on the whole, recruits tend to have unrealistic expectations, based on information gleaned from the media, advertisements and films. In the light of the above, the purpose of this study was to measure the expectations of both prospective students and the organisation in order to determine whether there is any match between the two party's expectations. At the same time the matching of expectations and the concomitant influence on job satisfaction, productivity, expected tenure of service, career expectations and performance were investigated. The methodology employed was a literature study supported by empirical research. The literature study focused on the theoretical foundations and models of the psychologica,l contract. The empirical research consisted of the application of Kotter's model and questionnaire pertaini~g to the psychological contract. Empirical research did not support Kotter's entire model. However, three relationships were supported. These were: • Relationship #1: clear and consciously reasoned expectations have a bearing on the psychological contract;Relationship #3: healthy understanding of each other's expectations show a strong rel?tionship with a positive psychological contract; and • Relationship #8: the relationship between the psychological contract and career expectations. Statistically significant differences were also found between students with high expectations ·and students with low expectations vis-a-vis career expectations, as well as between the differences between students' expectations and organisational expectations. Possible explanations for the above findings are presented, and recommendations are made for further research.

AFRIKAANS OPSOMMING: Die Fakulteit Krygskunde van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch kry, net soos verskeie privaaten openbare instansies, jaarliks met 'n groot aantal nuwelinge te doen. Soos by die instansies, ervaar verskeie nuwelinge by die Fakulteit ook aanpassingsprobleme gedurende die eerste aantal maande in hulle nuwe werksomgewing. Die aanpassingsprobleme lei daartoe dat nuwelinge frustrasie, ontevredenheid, rolkonflik en rolmeerduidigheid ervaar, wat weer tot swak akademiese prestasie kan lei. In 'n poging om bogenoemde probleme uit te skakel, moet daar gedurende die aansluitingsproses gestreef word na 'n tweerigting sielkundige kontrak, waardeur 'n passing tussen individuele behoeftes, vermoens en vaardighede aan die een kant, en die pos- en organisasievereistes aan die ander kant, bereik kan word. 'n Literatuurstudie het getoon dat nuwe toetreders 'n realiteitskok beleef, omdat hulle vir die eerste keer die gaping tussen verwagtings en drome aan die een kant en die realiteit aan die ander kant moet konfronteer. Daar is ook gevind dat werwingsmetodes in die militere omgewing dikwels oorhaastige kontraktering tot gevolg het en daartoe lei dat beide partye se verwagtings nie deeglik met mekaar bespreek word nie. Die literatuur toon ook dat rekrute in die algemeen onrealistiese verwagtings het, wat op inligting vanuit die media, advertensies en films gegrond is. Die studie het·dit·derhalwe ten doel gehad om die verwagtings van voornemende studente en die verwagtings van die organisasie (Militere Akademie, Fakulteit Krygskunde) te meet, sodat bepaal kan word of daar 'n passing tussen die twee partye se verwagtings bestaan. In die . studie is die passing van verwagtings en die invloed daarvan op werkstevredenheid, produktiwiteit, verwagte dienstermyn, loopbaanverwagtings en prestasie ondersoek. Om uitvoering hieraan te gee, is gebruik gemaak van 'n literatuurstudie wat deur empiriese navorsing opgevolg is. Die literatuurstudie het uit 'n teoretiese onderbou van die sielkundige kontrak en modelle van die sielkundige kontrak bestaan. Die empiriese navorsing het uit die toepassing van Kotter se model en vraelys van die sielkundige kontrak bestaan. Met empiriese navorsing kon nie steun vir Kotter se hele model verkry word nie. Steun is egter vir drie verwantskappe verkry, naamlik: • Verwantskap #1: verwagtings waaroor duidelik en bewustelik gedink is; Verwantskap #3: goeie beg rip vir mekaar se verwagtings toon 'n sterk verwantskap met 'n positiewe sielkundige kontrak; en • Verwantskap #8: die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en loopbaanverwagtings. Statisties beduidende verskille is ook tussen studente met hoe verwagtings en studente met lae verwagtings ten opsigte van loopbaanverwagtings verkry, asook tussen die verskille tussen studente se verwagtings en organisasieverwagtings. Moontlike verklarings vir bogenoemde bevindings word aangebied en aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gedoen.

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