Aspekte van stemontwikkeling : 'n psigo-fisiese benadering

Theron, Marie Antoinette (1994-03)

Thesis(M. Mus.) -- Stellenbosch University, 1994.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between developing the voice and freeing the voice. The ultimate aim of developing the singing voice is expression through the medium of sound. For this to happen, a singer's voice has to function free and resonant. Every song demands certain expressive qualities, and the singing instrument should be able to react to a wide range of impulses. The singing instrument should be freed to enable optimal functioning, while authentically conveying powerful emotions. Developing and freeing the voice is a psycho-physical process. A person's psycho-physical functioning is manifested in body posture. As it were, the body conforms to a person's predisposition and muscle use. Muscle condition, muscle use and the singer's psychological state of mind influence the way in which sound is produced. Sensory perception, the body and breathing in balance, and the use of the body as singing instrument is discussed in chapter two. During the teaching of singing it is imperative that singers develop free habits and expectations. A process of releasing the voice is needed, because stressful habits and distorted sound-expectations have become part of the singer's performance. This inhibits expression in sound and causes the singing apparatus to operate ineffectively. The proper balance between effort and result is often disturbed. In chapter three it is pointed out that more attention should be paid to psycho-physical aspects, including psychological hindrances, the mind, motivation and body language. The teacher-pupil relationship and fear can also influence the development of the voice. In the process of freeing the voice, the Alexander technique can contribute to recognition of malfunctioning and tension in the body. A new and expanded approach to teaching and learning is needed - this will enable the singer to fully participate through thought, physical sensing, feeling and intuitive functions during teaching sessions. All these components interact with each other to support the singing process and develop good technical skills. In chapter four activities which can contribute to the freeing process of the voice and psycho-physical development are discussed. Activities used to promote the integration of all components are game playing as aid to singing development, characterisation as tool for personality and emotional development, imagery and imagination, and voice and movement. In the final chapter some conclusions and directives are given for future teaching of singing, with recommendations about areas in which more research is needed, including development of mental concepts in singing, sound and movement, and the role and influence of feeling and emotion during the singing process.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie is 'n ondersoek na die verband tussen stemontwikkeling en stembevryding. Tydens sangstemontwikkeling is die uiteindelike doelwit ekspressie - om deur middel van klank uitdrukking te kan gee. Om dit te laat gebeur moet 'n sanger se stem vry en resonant klink. Elke lied stel sekere vereistes ten opsigte van uitdrukking en die sangapparaat behoort te kan reageer op 'n verskeidenheid van impulse. Die sangapparaat moet vry wees om optimaal te funksioneer en kragtige emosies getrou te verklank. Stemontwikkeling en stembevryding is 'n psigo-fisiese proses. Liggaamshouding IS 'n uiting of manifestasie van die mens se psigo-fisiese funksionering. Die liggaam neem as 't ware die vorm van die persoon se ingesteldheid en spiergebruik aan. Die toestand van spiere, die funksionering van spiere en die persoon se psigiese toestand het 'n invloed op die klank. Sensoriese waarneming, die liggaam en asemhaling in balans en die gebruik van die liggaam as sanginstrument word in hoofstuk twee bespreek. In sangonderrig is dit noodsaaklik dat sangers vrye gewoontes en verwagtinge sal ontwikkel. In Bevrydingsproses is dus nodig omdat spanningsvolle gewoontes en verwronge klankverwagtinge deel geword het van die sanger se denkwyse as gevolg van wanbegrippe oor sang. Dit inhibeer klankuitdrukking en laat die sangapparaat oneffektief funksioneer. Die korrekte verhouding tussen inspanning en resultaat is dikwels versteur. In hoofstuk drie word aangetoon dat in sangonderrig meer aandag gegee behoort te word aan psigo-fisiese aspekte, waaronder psigiese blokkerings, die denke, motivering en liggaamstaal. Ook die onderwyser-sanger-verhouding en vrees kan stemontwikkeling beinvloed. In die stembevrydingsproses kan lesse in die Alexandertegniek heelwat bydra tot die herkenning van wanfunksionering en spanning in die liggaam. 'n Nuwe en uitgebreide benadering tot onderrig en leer is dus wenslik, sodat die sanger tydens sangonderrig in sy totaliteit betrek kan word in sy denk-, fisiessintuiglike, gevoels- en intultiewe funksies. Al hierdie komponente werk interafhanklik saam om die sangproses te onderhou en goeie tegniese vaardighede te laat ontwikkel. In hoofstuk vier word aktiwiteite bespreek wat kan help met stembevryding en psigofisiese ontwikkeling. Die aktiwiteite wat integrasie van alle komponente bevorder, sluit in spel as hulpmiddel vir sangontwikkeling, karakterisering as middel tot persoonlikheids- en emosionele ontwikkeling, beeldingspel en verbeelding, en stem en beweging. In die finale hoofstuk word gevolgtrekkings en rigtingwysers vir toekomstige sangonderrig gemaak, met aanbevelings oor areas waaroor meer navorsing nodig is soos denkontwikkeling vir sangers, stem en beweging, en die funksionering en invloed van gevoel en emosie tydens die sangproses.

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