Didactical perspectives of aural training

Herbst, Anna Catharina (1993-12)

Thesis (PhD) -- Stellenbosch University, 1993.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research endeavour is to develop an understanding of the general state of Aural Training as presented in Aural Training literature and at a tertiary level. Based on this understanding, recommendations for a theory towards Aural Training are furthermore made. The investigation consists of three main parts. In the first two parts, an in-depth theoretical study, exploring aspects such as the rationale behind Aural Training, teaching ideologies, contents and target group and methodological approaches found in published and unpublished sources, as well as a practical questionnaire-based survey, investigating selected Aural Training aspects as presented on a tertiary level in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), and the United States of America (USA) are presented. A model of an integrated Aural Training approach for children is proposed in the third part. Results from both the theoretical and practical surveys indicate that: (a) the rationale behind Aural Training has not been thoroughly thought through; (b) Aural Training lecturers with sound pedagogical credentials are needed; (c) prospective students are not prepared for their tertiary Aural Training courses; (d) the Aural Training curricula at most tertiary music institutions do not meet lecturers' expectations; (e) more instruction time is needed for classes scheduled in both individual and group tuition; (f) Aural Training literature and teaching methods are still influenced by the Behaviouristic school of psychological thinking, with its emphasis on drill and practice; (g) methods such as Sight Singing and Dictation are more frequently applied than others, possibly because they are readily quantifiable; (h) most emphasis is placed on tonal music; (i) research results in which holistic approaches to Aural Training have been recommended since the early 1980s are not reflected in the majority of Aural Training work-/textbooks and teaching methods; (j) commercially available software is often chosen because of its availability and not because of being based on sound pedagogical principles; (k) there is a growing interest amongst lecturers to re-examine the goals of Aural Training and to apply music psychological principles. Because of the already mentioned problem of improperly prepared prospective music students" and the scarcity of Aural Training approaches to develop children's musical consciousnesses, a model for integrating' Aural Training into the instrumental/vocal music lesson through composition is proposed. This model is based entirely on (a) the conviction that most effective learning takes place through active involvement and creation, and (b) music psychological principles such as Gestalt perception, the developmental theories of Piaget, Gardner and Swanwick-Tillman, and the musical thinking process theories of Prince and Webster. Through the application of this model, Aural Training can be approached by dealing with wholes within a musical context. Structural and perceptual thinking, as well as the mental principles of exploring, applying, problem-solving and critical reasoning can also be developed. It offers a comprehensive approach to learning written theory skills, and the opportunity to apply all other Aural Training methods. Examples of children's compositions are presented to support this model. It is finally recommended that: (a) Aural Training lecturers should constantly re-examine their objectives, contents, teaching philosophies and methods applied; (b) advanced courses in Aural Training should be offered at all tertiary music institutions in order to meet the need for adequately trained lecturers; (c) a compulsory course on the didactics of Aural Training should be offered for all music students; (d) more instruction time should be made available for Aural Training; (e) Aural Training should be treated in its own right in grading policies; (f) holistic approaches to both classroom-based and programmed Aural Training should replace drill and practice; (g) music from all style periods should be included; (h) a wide spectrum of Aural Training methods should be incorporated and not mainly Sight Singing and Dictation; (i) lecturers should inform themselves about recent research results and try to incorporate these into their Aural Training curricula and syllabi; g) Work-/textbooks and computer software based on holistic and comprehensive approaches to Aural Training should be released; (k) Aural Training should be incorporated from the very first instrumental/vocal lesson by applying an integrated, holistic approach through composition.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om 'n ondersoek te loods na die algemene stand van gehooropleiding soos daargestel in musiekliteratuur, en soos aangebied aan tersiere musiekinstansies: 'n Model vir gelntegreerde gehooropleiding word ten slotte voorgestel aan hand van hierdie inligting. Die inhoud van die ondersoek is in drie hoofdele georganiseer. In die eerste deel word In teoretiese ondersoek geloods na die redes vir, en doelstellings van gehooropleiding, onderrigfilosojiee, inhoud en teikengroep, en metodiese benaderingswyses. Die mate waarin hierdie aspekte, soos gevind in gepubliseerde en ongepubliseerde bronne, neerslag gevind het in tersiere gehooropleidingsprogramme in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika, die Federale Republiek van Duitsland en die Verenigde State van Amerika, vorm die kern van die vraelys-gebaseerde tweede deel. 'n Model vir gelntegreerde gehooropleiding met kinders word in die derde deel voorgestel. Resultate van beide die teoretiese en praktiese ondersoeke toon dat: (a) die redes vir, en doelstellings van gehooropleiding nog nie goed deurdink is nie; (b) spesiaal geskoolde gehooropleidingsdosente benodig word; (c) voornemende musiekstudente nie voorbereid vir tersiere gehooropleidingskursusse is nie; (d) die gehooropleidingskurrikula nie aandie vereistes van die meeste gehooropleidingsdosente voldoen nie; (e) meer onderrigtyd benodig word vir gehooropleiding, wat in beide individuele en groepsonderrig plaas behoort te vind; (f) gehooropleidingsmetodes steeds sterk belnvloed word deur die Behavioristiese skool van musiekpsigologiese denke waarin dril en herhaling beklemtoon word; (g) bladsang en diktee voorkeur geniet bo ander metodes, waarskynlik as gevolg van die feit dat studente se antwoorde makliker gekwantifiseer kan word as in ander metodes; (h) tonale musiek meestal beklemtoon word; (i) navorsingresultate waarin holistiese benaderingswyses tot gehooropleiding sedert die begin van die 1980's aanbeveel word, min tot geen invloed op die meerderheid gehooropleidingsteksboeke en -metodes gehad het; g) kommersieel beskikbare rekenaarprogramme dikwels gekies word op grond van beskikbaarheid en nie op grond van pedagogiese doelstellings nie; (k) daar 'n toenemende geinteresseerdheid onder dosente is om die doelstelling van gehooropleiding te re-evaIueer, en om musiekpsigologiese beginsels in gehooropleiding te inkorporeer. Vanwee die reeds genoemde probleemvan onvoorbereide voornemende musiekstudente wat gehooropleiding betref en die skaarsheid aan gehooropleidingsprogramme vir kinders, is 'n model vir die integrering van gehooropleiding deur middel van komposisie in die instrumentale en/of sangles voorgestel. Hierdie model is gebaseer op (a) die oortuiging dat die mees effektiewe vorm van leer plaasvind d.m. v. aktiewe betrokkenheid en skepping; en (b) die musiekpsigologiese beginsels van Gestalt-waameming, die ontwikkelingsteoriee van Piaget, Gardner en Swanwick- Tillman, en musikale denkprosesteoriee van Prince en Webster. Deur middel van hierdie model kan gehooropleiding benader word vanuit 'n holistiese oogpunt deurdat gehele binne 'n musikale konteks behandel word. Daardeur word nie net strukturele en persepsuele denke ontwikkel nie, maar ook verstandelike denkprosesse soos ontdekking, aanwending, probleemoplossing en kritiese denke. Dit bied ook die geleentheid vir 'n geheelbenadering tot die aanleer van musiekteoretiese kennis en skryfvaardighede, en die inkorporering van aIle ander gehooropleidingsmetodes. Voorbeelde van kinders se komposisies is ingesluit as bewys daarvoor dat dit weI in die praktyk toepasbaar is. Ten slotte word aanbeveel dat: (a) gehooropleidingsdosente hulle doelstellings, onderrigfilosofiee en -metodes voortdurend krities moet betrag en ondersoek; (b) gevorderde kursusse in gehooropleiding aan alle tersiere musiekinstansies aangebied behoort te word om sodoende te voorsien in die nood van onvoldoende geskoolde,dosente; (c) alle studente verplig moet word om 'n kursus in gehooropleidingsdidaktiek te volg; (d) meer onderrrigtyd ingeruim behoort te word vir gehooropleiding; (e) gehooropleiding as 'n vak in eie reg behandel moet word by puntetoekennings; (t) metodes van 001 en herhaling met holistiese benaderingswyses tot gehooropleiding in beide klaskamergebaseerde en geprogrammeerde onderrig vervang moet word; (g) musiek van alle stylperiodes ingesluit behoort te word; (h) 'n wye spektrum van gehooropleidingsmetodes aangewend moet word en me slegs bladsang en diktee me; (i) gehooropleidingsdosente hulself voortdurend op hoogte van die nuutste navorsingsresul-tate behoort'te hou en moet poog om hierdie resultate in hulle gehooropleidingsprogramme te integreer; g) gehooropleidingsboeke en rekenaarprogramme wat op holistiese en kontekstuele benaderings tot gehooropleiding gebaseer is, gepubliseer moet word; (k) gehooropleiding vanaf die eerste instrumentale en/of sangles gei'ntegreer behoort te word deurdat die voorgestelde model van 'n holistiese benaderingswyse d.m. v. komposisie aangewend word.

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