Selected black African dramatists South of the Zambezi

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dc.contributor.advisor Hauptfleisch, Temple
dc.contributor.advisor Schauffer, Dennis
dc.contributor.author Litkie, Celeste Avril
dc.contributor.other University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Drama. en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2011-01-13T12:47:13Z
dc.date.available 2011-01-13T12:47:13Z
dc.date.issued 2003-04
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/5692
dc.description 244 leaves printed on single pages, preliminary pages and numbered pages 1-234. Includes bibliography, list of appendices. Digitized at 330 dpi black and white PDF format (OCR), using a KODAK i 1220 PLUS scanner. en_ZA
dc.description Thesis (DPhil (Drama))--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Late twentieth century theatre studies has been characterised by an expansion of the notion of theatre to encompass an enormous variety of performance-based activities. A range of pioneering academics and practitioners have moved beyond the old European-American paradigm of the literary theatre, to recognize the unique qualities of the performance as a theatrical artefact in its own right. One of the by-products of this paradigm shift has been what some would term the death - or at least diminution - of the dramatist or playwright. Another has been the (re-)discovery of what is vaguely referred to as "African theatre". This study had no intention of taking up the argument about the precise forms and processes that belong under that rubric, nor the many problems associated with such categorizing. It has a much more mundane aim, namely to look at one form of play creation - formal playwriting - in a specified region of the vast African continent, south of the Zambezi. The focus is very specifically on published or written texts, created and produced in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland and Mozambique. For a variety of reasons not all these countries could be studied, but enough material was found to arrive at some initial conclusions. In this respect, this is a pioneering study, since no such comparative survey has yet been done. Based on a previous pilot study by Dennis Schauffer at the University of Durban-Westville, the study utilises a process model of the theatrical system proposed by Temple Hauptfleisch (1997) as a frame of reference and a range of four basic kinds of data to answer a number of questions to study the writers and their works. The materials utilized are: 1. Play scripts 2. Biographical data, press cuttings, video recordings, articles. 3. Interviews and interviewer's journal entries. 4. Studies of the socio-political milieu. Data was gathered on 12 writers and their works, as well as some substantial information on community theatre and related forms in the region. The primary authors discussed in some detail are Gibson Kente, Zakes Mda, Gcina Mhlope, Matsemela Manaka, Fani-Kayode Osazuwa Omoregie, Freddy Philander, Vickson Tablah Hangula, Tsokolo Muso (Tjotela mor'a Moshpela), Sonny Sampson-akpan, Andreas Mavuso, and Sipho Mtetwa. With this data the study seeks to address a number of questions concerning playwriting in the sub-continent. These include: 1. a comparison of existing performance forms and their relationships to oral traditions; 2. the influence of socio-political contexts on the works produced; 3. the relationship between plays and the other media, such as film and television; 4. a consideration of audiences (or target audiences) and their impact on the form and content of works; 5. the impact of the nature of, access to and availability of venues; 6. the role played by funding and relationships to state institutions; 7. language choices and their impact on the arts; 8. And finally, the interesting question of cross-cultural encounters and their influence on the forms of theatre in the region. This set of questions provide the context for a study of the variety of theatrical and performance output generated in Africa, south of the Zambezi, and to identify some common and/or divergent cultural influences in the works of the selected black African dramatists in the southern sub-continent of Africa. As expected, one such common denominator was the oral tradition, the other was the colonial heritage of western, Eurocentric theatre and literary practices. The dynamic between these traditions proved to be a point of some interest, but also posed many methodological problems. Two other major factors in many of the countries have proven to be the lack of a strong theatrical infrastructure and divergent audience expectations, which have led to a proliferation of non-formal and applied theatre processes (e.g. in political theatre, popular theatre, community theatre, theatre for development, etc), which in their turn pose their own methodological problems for researchers. In the final analysis, given the restraints under which the candidate had to work, the study could only look at some interesting but selected authors, who in their works seem to illustrate some of the variety and energy of the widely dispersed region. Hopefully in doing this it provided a few broad indications of important trends. More importantly perhaps, the study did identify a number of areas for future research. It would seem that, besides a tremendous need to do considerably more work on the collection and archiving of data on theatre and performance systems, practitioners and practice in Southern Africa, there are at least three additional areas of research that require particular attention: 1. the development of an appropriate theatre research methodology for application in the region; 2. a study of the role played by foreign nationals; 3. the setting up of a national and continent-wide database on theatre in Africa. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Teaternavorsing word in die laat twintigste eeu gekenmerk deur 'n uitbreiding van die konsep teater om 'n enorme spektrum tipes aanbiedings-aktiwiteite ("performance activities") te behels. Verskeie leidinggewende akademici en praktisyns het verby die ou Europees-Amerikaanse paradigma van literere teater beweeg om die die unieke kwaliteite van die aanbieding ("performance") as 'n kreatiewe artefak in eie reg. Een van die newe-produkte van hierdie verskuiwing in paradigma is die sogenaamde "dood" - of ten minste die afskaling van die rol van die toneelskrywer of dramaturg. 'n Ander (her)ontdekking was wat ons breedweg na verwys as Afrikateater. Die studie beoog nie om al die ou argumente oor die presiese vorms en prosesse wat onder daardie benaming behoort te behandel nie, of om nogeens te spekuleer oor die menige probleme wat met sodanige kategorisering gepaard gaan nie. Die doelwit is veel eenvoudiger: om na een vorm van teksskepping (formele toneelskryf) te kyk in 'n gespesifiseerde streek van die Afrika-kontinent, suid van die Zambesi. Die fokus is pertinent op gepubliseerde of geskrewe tekste, geskep en opgevoer in Suid-Afrika, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland en Mozambique. Om verskeie redes is nie al die lande uiteindelik deurtastend bestudeer nie, maar genoeg materiaal kon ingewin word om tog by 'n aantal voorlopige gevolgtrekkings uit te kom. In hierdie opsig is die studie uniek, aangesien nog geen ander vergelykende studie van teater in hierdie lande onderneem is nie. Die ondersoek is gebaseer op 'n loodsprojek wat deur Dennis Schauffer by die Universiteit van Durban-Westville onderneem is, en maak gebruik van 'n prosesmodel van die teatersisteem wat deur Temple Hauptfleisch (1997) ontwikkel is om as 'n raamwerk te dien waarbinne vier stelle bronne ontleed en bespreek word. Die tersake bronne behels: 1. Toneeltekste 2. Biografiese inligting 3. Onderhoude, persberigte, video-opnames, artikels 4. Studies van die sosio-politieke milieu. Inligting is oor twaalf dramaturge en hulle werk ingewin, saam met substansiele inligting oor gemeenskapsteater en aanverwante vorme. Die hoof skrywers wat in besonderhede bespreek word is Gibson Kente, Zakes Mda, Gcina Mhlope, Matsemela Manaka, Fani-Kayode Osazuwa Omoregie, Freddy Philander, Vickson Tablah Hangula, Tsokolo Muso (Tjotela mar' a Moshpela), Sonny Sampson-akpan, Andreas Mavuso, en Sipho Mtetwa. Met hierdie data het die ondersoeker gepoog om 'n aantal vrae oor toneelskryf op die sub-kontinent aan te spreek. Die vrae sluit in: 1. 'n vergelyking tussen bestaande aanbiedingsvorms en hulle verwantskap met orale tradisies; 2. die invloed van sosio-politieke kontekste op die werke gelewer; 3. die verhouding tussen toneelstukke en ander media vorme, soos film en televisie; 4. 'n kyk na gehore (of teiken gehore) en hulle impak op die vorm en inhoud van werke; 5. die impak, aard en toeganklikheid van speelruimtes; 6. die rol gespeel deur befondsing en die verhouding met staats-instellings; 7. taalkeuses en hulle impak op die kunste; 8. en laastens: die interressante kwessie van kruis-kulurele kontakte en hulle invloed op die vorme van teater in die streek. Hierdie stel vrae vorm die konteks vir 'n ondersoek na die verskeidenheid van teater en aanbiedingsuitsette wat suid van die Zambesi gegenereer word, en die identifisering van sommige gemeenskaplike en uiteenlopende kulturele invloede in die werke van swart Afrika-skrywers in die gebied. Soos verwag, was een van die gemeenskaplikhede die orale tradisie, 'n ander die koloniale erfenis van Westerse, Eurosentriese teater en literere gebruike. Die dinamiese interaksie tussen hierdie twee tradisies het van besondere belang geblyk te wees, maar impliseer ook n hele aantal metodologiese probleme. Twee ander faktore wat in baie van die bestudeerde lande sleutel rolle speel is die tekort aan 'n sterk teaterinfrastruktuur en uiteenlopende gehoorverwagtinge - wat lei tot 'n proliferasie van nie-formele en toegepaste teaterprosesse (bv. in politieke teater, populêreteater, gemeenskapsteater, teater vir ontwikkeling, ens.), wat op hulle beurt ook spesifieke metodologiese uitdagings aan die navorser stel. Gegee die beperkinge waaronder die kandidaat moes werk, kon die studie dus slegs na 'n aantal interessante maar geselekteerde outeurs kyk, wie se werke die verskeidenheid en energie van teater in die wydverspreide streek illustreer. Hopelik het die studie op die wyse 'n aantal bree aanduidings kon gee van belangrike tendense. Terselfdertyd is 'n aantal belangrike terreine vir toekomstige navorsing geidentifiseer. Dit wil voorkom asof daar, benewens 'n enorme behoefte aan die byeenbring en argivering van data oor teater sisteme, praktisyns en aanbiedings in die streek, drie terreine is waarop dringned gewerk moet word: 1. Die ontwikkelling van 'n toepaslike teaternavorsingsmetodologie; 2. 'n studie van die rol gespeel deur buitelandse praktisyns in die ontwikkelling van inheemse vorme; 3. die daarstel van 'n omvangryke nasionale en trans-kontinentale databasis oor teater in Afrika. en_ZA
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch en_ZA
dc.subject Theatre en_ZA
dc.subject Studies en_ZA
dc.subject Performance en_ZA
dc.subject Play en_ZA
dc.title Selected black African dramatists South of the Zambezi en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder University of Stellenbosch en_ZA


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