Investigations of the role of myomegalin in the phosphorylation of cardiac myosin binding protein C

Uys, Gerrida Mathilda (2010-12)

Thesis (PhD (Biomedical Sciences))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.



ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac muscle disorder worldwide. The disease is characterized by extreme variability in the amount of hypertrophy that develops in different patients in response to sarcomeric protein-encoding gene mutations. The underlying defect in HCM is altered contractility of the sarcomere, primarily due to a defective sarcomere. Although numerous disease-causing genes have been identified for HCM, the factors that modify the amount of hypertrophy that develops in a given person are still unknown, it can be hypothesized that molecules that affect contractility can act as modifiers of the hypertrophic signal, and therefore influence the development of hypertrophy. Cardiac contractility is regulated by dynamic phosphorylation of proteins within the sarcomere by kinases such as cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA). Because speed and energy efficiency of cardiac muscle contraction has to be regulated in order to match the body’s needs, PKA is anchored close to its targets by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) to enable spatio-temporal control of phosphorylation. Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBPC) and cardiac troponin I (cTNI) are HCM-causing sarcomeric proteins which regulate contractility in response to PKA phosphorylation. In a previous study, our laboratory identified a phosphodiesterase 4D-interacting protein as ligand of the N-terminal of cMyBPC via a yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) cardiac library screen. This protein is also known in the literature as myomegalin (MMGL) isoform 4. Because phosphodiesterases and PKA are sometimes anchored by the same anchoring protein (AKAP), we hypothesized that MMGL isoform 4 acts as an AKAP by anchoring PKA to the phosphorylatable N-terminal of cMyBPC, and tested this by direct protein-protein interaction analyses in a yeast-based system. The MMGL cDNA was cloned into a bait vector, which was directly assessed for interaction with two distinct PKA regulatory-subunit preys. We further investigated the function of MMGL itself by using the Y2H bait to screen a cardiac cDNA library for novel MMGL interactors. All the prey clones identified via these Y2H analyses were subsequently sequenced to determine their identity. Based on their identities and subcellular localization, all putative Y2H MMGL-prey interactions were further assessed by additional, separate biochemical techniques viz. in vivo co-immunoprecipitation and in vivo 3D co-localization. The interactions between MMGL and its known PKA-phosphorylatable sarcomeric ligands were also investigated under conditions of β-adrenergic stress, by quantitatively measuring levels of co-localization before and upon addition of the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the role of MMGL in cMyBPC phosphorylation, we assessed the expression of the different phosphorylation isoforms of cMyBPC, with and without β-adrenergic stimulation, in the context of siRNA-mediated MMGL knockdown. We further hypothesized that MMGL and PKA may serve as modifiers of the hypertrophic phenotype. This was tested by conducting a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping study of the genes encoding MMGL and the regulatory subunits of PKA viz. PDE4DIP, PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A, respectively, and comparing genotypic data with clinical phenotypic traits in a family-based association study. A panel of 353 individuals, including genetically and clinically affected as well as unaffected HCM individuals, was identified. All these individuals were screened for the presence or absence of all three South African HCM founder mutations, and blood was collected and DNA extracted. Genotypes at multiple SNPs in each gene were determined by subjecting the DNA samples to TaqMan® allelic discrimination technology. Statistical analysis using quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing (QTDT) was done in order to establish whether the difference in genotype in these three genes might have an effect on HCM phenotype. Our results showed that MMGL interacted with both PKA regulatory subunits as well as with other cardiac proteins that are PKA targets, including the sarcomeric protein cTNI. It was confirmed that two regulatory subunits of PKA (PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A), cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), copper metabolism gene MURR1 domain 4 (COMMD4), α-enolase (ENO1), β-enolase (ENO3) and cTNI are novel interactors of MMGL. In order to classify a protein as an AKAP, interaction with one of PKA’s regulatory subunits are prerequisite; MMGL showed interaction with both, confirming our hypothesis of MMGL being an AKAP, moreover, classifying it as a novel dual-specific sarcomeric AKAP. The identities of the AKAPs involved in the phosphorylation of cMyBPC and cTNI had been unknown; our results indicate that MMGL is the AKAP involved in the phosphorylation of both these PKA targets. We also showed that quantitatively more interaction occurs between MMGL and its sarcomeric ligands cMyBPC and cTNI under β-adrenergic stress. This implicates that under elevated cAMP levels, PKA is dynamically recruited by MMGL to the PKA targets cMyBPC and cTNI, presumably to mediate cardiac stress responses and leading to increased cardiac contractility. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MMGL lead to a reduction of cMyBPC levels under conditions of β-adrenergic stress, indicating that MMGL-assisted phosphorylation is requisite for protection of cMyBPC against proteolytic cleavage. The SNP modifier study indicated that one variant in PDE4DIP (rs1664005) showed strong association with numerous clinical hypertrophy traits, including maximal interventricular septum thickness, as well as a number of other composite score traits. Two variants in PRKAR1A (rs11651687 and rs3785906) also showed strong association with some of these clinical hypertrophy traits. These results therefore suggest that variants in these two genes may act as modifiers of the HCM phenotype. In conclusion, this study ascribes a novel function to MMGL isoform 4: it meets all criteria for classification as an AKAP and appears to be involved in the phosphorylation of cMyBPC as well as cTNI; hence MMGL is likely to be an important component in the regulation of cardiac contractility, and by extension, in the development of hypertrophy. This has further implications for understanding the patho-aetiology of mutations in cMyBPC and cTNI, and raises the question of whether MMGL might itself be considered a candidate HCM-causing factor.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hipertrofiese kardiomiopatie (HKM) is die mees algemeenste oorerflike hartspier siekte wêreldwyd. Die siekte word gekenmerk deur die uiterste variasie in die hoeveelheid hipertrofie wat in verskillende pasiënte ontwikkel as gevolg van sarkomeriese proteïen-koderende mutasies. Die onderliggende gebrek in HKM is geaffekteerde kontraktiliteit van die sarkomeer, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van ‘n gebrekkige sarkomeer. Alhoewel daar verskeie siekte-veroorsakende gene vir HKM geïdentifiseer is, bly die faktore wat die hoeveelheid hipertrofie in ‘n gegewe persoon modifiseer, onbekend. Daar kan dus gehipotiseer word dat molekules wat kontraktiliteit beïnvloed as modifiseerders van die hipertrofiese sein kan optree, en dus die ontwikkeling van hipertrofie beïnvloed. Hartspier kontraktiliteit word gereguleer deur die dinamiese fosforilasie van proteïene binne die sarkomeer deur kinases soos bv. cAMP-geaktiveerde proteïen kinase A (PKA). Die spoed en energie doeltreffendheid van hartspier kontraksie moet gereguleer word om by die liggaam se behoeftes aan te pas; dus word PKA naby sy teikens deur A-kinase anker proteïene (AKAPs) geanker om sodoende die beheer van fosforilasie beide in die korrekte area sowel as tydsduur te reguleer. Kardiale miosien-bindingsproteïen C (cMyBPC), asook kardiale troponien I (cTNI), is beide HKM-veroorsakende sarkomeriese proteïene wat kontraktiliteit beheer deur middel van fosforilasie deur PKA. In ‘n vorige studie in ons laboratorium is ‘n fosfodiesterase 4D-interaksie proteïen as bindingsgenoot van die N-terminaal van cMyBPC geïdentifiseer deur middel van ‘n gis-twee-hibried (G2H) kardiale biblioteek sifting. In die literatuur staan dié proteïen ook bekend as miomegalin (MMGL) isovorm 4. Fosfodiesterases en PKA word soms deur dieselfde anker proteïen (AKAP) geanker, dus het ons hipotiseer dat MMGL isovorm 4 ook as AKAP kan optree deur PKA aan die fosforileerbare N-terminaal van cMyBPC te anker. Die hipotese is getoets deur middel van direkte proteïen-proteïen interaksie analises in ‘n gis-gebaseerde sisteem. Die MMGL cDNA was in ‘n jag-plasmied gekloneer, wat toe direk ge-evalueer is vir interaksie met twee verskillende PKA regulatoriese-subeenheid prooi-plasmiede. Die funksie van MMGL self is verder ondersoek deur die G2H jag-plasmied te gebruik om ‘n kardiale cDNA biblioteek te sif, sodoende om nuwe MMGL bindingsgenote te identifiseer. Alle prooi klone wat deur dié G2H analises geïdentifiseer is, was daarna onderworpe aan DNA-volgorde bepaling om hul identiteit vas te stel. Afhangende van hul identiteite en subsellulêre lokalisering, is alle moontlike G2H MMGL-prooi interaksies verder ge-evalueer deur bykomende, afsonderlike biochemiese tegnieke viz. in vivo ko-immunopresipitasie asook in vivo 3D ko-lokalisering. Die interaksie tussen MMGL en sy bekende PKA-gefosforileerde sarkomeriese bindingsgenote was ook ondersoek onder kondisies van β-adrenergiese stres, deur kwantitatief die vlakke van ko-lokalisering te meet voor en na byvoeging van die β-adrenergiese agonis isoproterenol. Om verder die rol van MMGL in cMyBPC fosforilasie te ondersoek, het ons die uitdrukking van die verskillende fosforilasie isovorms van cMyBPC, met en sonder β-adrenergiese stimulasie, in die konteks van siRNA-bemiddelde MMGL uitklop, bepaal. Ons het verder hipotiseer dat MMGL en PKA as modifiseerders van die hipertrofiese fenotipe mag dien. Dit is getoets deur ‘n enkel nukleotied polimorfisme (SNP) genotiperings studie van die gene wat kodeer vir MMGL en die regulatoriese subeenhede van PKA, viz. PDE4DIP, PRKAR1A en PRKAR2A, en daarna dié genotipiese data met kliniese fenotipiese data te vergelyk in ‘n familie-gebaseerde assosiasie studie. ‘n Paneel van 353 individue wat genetiese en klinies geaffekteerde, sowel as ongeaffekteerde HKM individue insluit, was geidentifiseerd. Alle individue was ondersoek vir die aanwesigheid of afwesigheid van al drie Suid-Afrikaanse HKM stigter mutasies; bloedmonsters is gekollekteer en DNA uitgetrek. Die genotipes van veelvoudige SNPs in elke geen was bepaal deur die DNA monsters aan TaqMan® alleliese diskriminasie tegnologie met behulp van die ABI TaqMan® Validated SNP Genotyping Assays sisteem te analiseer. Statistiese analises deur middel van kwantitatiewe transmissie disekwilibrium toetse (QTDT) was gedoen om te bepaal of die verskil in genotipe in hierdie drie gene ‘n effek op HKM fenotipe het. Ons resultate het gewys dat MMGL interaksie toon met beide PKA regulatoriese subeenhede, sowel as met ander kardiale proteïene wat ook PKA teikens is, insluitende die sarkomeriese proteïen cTNI. Dit is bevestig dat die twee regulatoriese subeenhede van PKA (PRKAR1A en PRKAR2A), kardiale ankyrin herhaal proteïen (CARP), koper metabolisme geen MURR1 domein 4 (COMMD4), α-enolase (ENO1), β-enolase (ENO3) en cTNI almal nuwe bindingsgenote van MMGL is. ‘n Proteïen moet interaksie met een van die regulatoriese subeenhede van PKA toon om as AKAP geklassifiseer te word; MMGL het interaksie met beide getoon, wat ons hipotese bevestig dat MMGL ‘n AKAP is, asook dat MMGL as ‘n nuwe dubbel-spesifieke sarkomeriese AKAP geklassifiseer kan word. Die identiteite van die AKAPs wat betrokke is in die fosforilasie van cMyBPC en cTNI was onbekend tot nou; ons resultate wys dat MMGL die AKAP is wat betrokke is in die fosforilasie van beide hierdie PKA teikens. Ons wys ook dat daar kwantitatief meer interaksie plaasvind tussen MMGL en sy sarkomeriese bindingsgenote cMyBPC en cTNI onder kondisies van β-adrenergiese stres. Dit impliseer dat PKA dinamies verwerf word deur MMGL, onder verhoogde vlakke van cAMP, tot by die PKA teikens cMyBPC en cTNI, moontlik om kardiale stres-response te bemiddel en dus te lei na verhoogde spierkontraksie. Verder het siRNA-bemiddelde uitklop van MMGL gelei na ‘n vermindering van cMyBPC vlakke onder kondisies van β-adrenergiese stres. Dit dui aan dat fosforilasie deur middel van MMGL-bystand ‘n voorvereiste is vir beskerming van cMyBPC teen proteolise. Die SNP modifiseerder studie het gewys dat een variant in PDE4DIP (rs1664005) sterk assosiasie toon met verskeie kliniese hipertrofie kenmerke, insluitende maksimale interventrikulêre septum diktheid, sowel as ander van die saamgestelde telling kenmerke. Twee variante in PRKAR1A (rs11651687 en rs3785906) het ook sterk assosiasie getoon met verskeie van die kliniese hipertropfie kenmerke. Hierdie resultate dui dus daarop dat variante in hierdie twee gene as modifiseerders van die HKM fenotipe mag optree. In samevatting skryf hierdie studie ‘n nuwe funksie aan MMGL isovorm 4 toe: dit voldoen aan alle vereistes om as AKAP geklassifiseer te word en dit blyk of dit betrokke is in die fosforilasie van cMyBPC en cTNI; dus is MMGL waarskynlik ‘n belangrike komponent in die regulasie van hartspier sametrekking, en dus met uitbreiding, in die ontwikkeling van hipertrofie. Dit hou verdere implikasies in om die siekte-oorsaak van mutasies in cMyBPC en cTNI te verstaan, en stel die vraag of MMGL self as ‘n kandidaat HKM-veroorsakende geen kan beskou word.

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