Carcinops pumilio (Erichson) (Coleoptera: Histeridae) as a predator of house flies in poultry manure

Achiano, K. A. (Kwaku Akoming) (2004-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In surveys carried out on poultry farms in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, the larvae of the flies Musca domestica L., Fannia canicularis (L.) and Leptocera sp. were found to be numerous. The majority of M domestica larvae and the mite Proctolaelaps sp. were recovered from manure with temperatures between 20 and 26°C while the larvae of F. canicularis and Leptocera sp. were mostly found between 14 and 22°C. Predominant predatory arthropods in the manure were the histerid Carcinops pumilio (Erichson), the staphylinid Philonthus sordidus (Gravenhorst) and the mite Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli). These had a manure temperature tolerance of between 12 and 31°C. Macrocheles muscaedomesticae and P. sordidus preferred fresh manure, whilst C pumilio preferred aged manure. Therefore these two predators could complement one another in integrated pest management programmes. From a study of the vertical cross-sectional profile of the manure cone it was clear that the larvae of the prey species M domestica and F. canicularis and predator P. sordidus distinctly occupy the crest of the manure cone. The succession of arthropods in accumulating poultry manure and the effect of manure height on their numbers was studied. The prey species M domestica and F. canicularis were the first colonizers followed by the predators P. sordidus and M muscaedomesticae. Carcinops pumilio was a late colonizer. The numbers of M domestica and F. canicularis larvae were negatively correlated with the increase in manure height whilst the numbers of the predators C pumilio and M muscaedomesticae were positively correlated with this. The total developmental time of C pumilio from egg to adult emergence at 30°C was 20.5 days. Two larval instars were recorded. The immature stages sustained about 50% mortality before adult emergence. Carcinops pumilio adults can live up to 130 days at 30°C and had a Type I survivorship curve. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was 0.064943 and net reproduction rate (Rs) was 20.191.The rate of oviposition was directly proportional to body size and weight. Increase in density had a dampening effect on fecundity and led to an increase in developmental time. Thus density will be a critical factor in any mass rearing programme for this predator of fly larvae. In addition, an increase in density stimulated the dispersal of C. pumilio. A crowding level of 50 C. pumilio adults per 200ml container resulted in the least dispersal which did not exceed 2.5% per day, compared with up to 24.0% at a crowding level of 400. The predation rate of flies by C. pumilio in the laboratory decreased with an increase in predator density, but increased with an increase in starvation. Starvation had no effect on predation rate of M muscaedomesticae. A technique exploiting Drosophila melanogaster Meig. as a source of prey was successfully developed for rearing C. pumilio, which could be of commercial value. Drosophila melanogaster appeared to be an ideal candidate as a source of prey for mass rearing C. pumilio due to its short developmental time of about ten days. It is also inexpensive and easy to breed, and has a very high biotic potential. Carcinops pumilio that were fed on artificial diet had a prolonged developmental time and increase in weight, and laid fewer eggs than those fed on natural diet. C. pumilio completed its development on the artificial diet and both the F, and F2 generations fed on an artificial diet were able to lay eggs. This could be the first step towards finding an artificial diet that would allow continuous rearing of C. pumilio and their availability at all times for utilization in the biological control of houseflies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In opnames wat op pluimveeplase in die Westelike Kaapprovinsie, Suid-Afrika uitgevoer is, is gevind dat die vliegsoorte Musca damestica L., Fannia canicularis (L.) en Leptacera sp. volop is. Die meeste van die M. damestica larwes en die myt Practalaelaps sp. is versamel in hoendermis met temperature tussen 20 en 26°C en die larwes van Ficanicularis en Leptacera tussen 14 en 22°C. Die volopste predatoriese arthropode in die mis was die histerid Carcinaps pumilia Erichson, die staphylinid Philanthus sardidus (Gravenhorst) en die myt Machrascheles muscaedamesticae (Scopoli). Hulle temperatuurtoleransie in die mis was tussen 12 en 31°C. Machrasceles muscaedamesticae en P. sardidus het vars mis verkies, terwyl C. pumilio voorkeur aan ouer mis gegee het. Gevolglik behoort hierdie twee predatore mekaar te komplementeer in programme van ge-integreerde plaagbestuur. In Studie van die vertikale deursnee-profiel van die miskeel het duidelik getoon dat die prooispesies M. damestica en en F canicularis en die predator P. sardidus in die kroon van die miskeel voorkom. Die opeenvolging van die arthropode in die ophopende hoendermis en die invloed van mishoogte op hulle getalle is bestudeer. Die prooispesies M damestica en F canicularis was die eerste koloniseerders, gevolg deur die predatore P. sardidus en M muscaedamesticae. Carcinaps pumilia was In laat koloniseerder. Die getalle van die larwes van M damestica en F. canicularis was negatief gekorreleer met die toename in mishoogte terwyl die getalle van die predartore C. pumilia en M. muscaedamesticae positief daarmee gekorreleer was. Die totale ontwikkelingstyd van C. pumilia van eier tot die volwassene se verskyning was 20.5 dae by 30°C. Twee larwale instars is gevind. Die onvolwasse stadia het 50% mortaliteit ondergaan voor die verskyning van die volwassenes. Die volwassenes van C. pumilia kan tot 130 dae lank by 30°C lewe en het In Tipe 1 oorlewingskurwe gehad. Die intrinsieke tempo van natuurlike toename (rm) was 0.064943 en die netto reproduksietempo (Rs) 20.191. Die tempo van eierlegging was in direkte verhouding tot die liggaamsgrootte en massa. Toename in digtheid het 'n onderdrukkende effek op vrugbaarheid gehad en tot 'n toename in ontwikkelingstyd gelei. Digtheid sal dus 'n kritieke faktor wees III emge program van massateling vir hierdie predator van vlieglarwes. Daarmee saam het 'n toename in digtheid die verspreiding van C. pumilio gestimuleer. By 'n digtheid van 50 C. pumilio volwassenes per houer het die verspreiding nie 2.5% oorskrei nie, in vergelyking met tot 24.0% by 'n dightheid van 400. Die predasietempo van vliee deur C. pumilio in die laboratorium het afgeneem met 'n toename in predatordigtheid, maar toegeneem met 'n toename in verhongering. Verhongering het nie 'n invloed gehad op die predasietempo van M. muscaedomesticae nie. 'n Tegniek met Drosophila melanogaster Meig. as bron van prooi in die teling van C pumilio is suksesvol ontwikkel en dit kan van kommersiele waarde wees. Dit blyk dat D. melanogaster ideaal kan wees as 'n bron van prooi in die massateling van Cpumilio vanwee sy kort ontwikkkelingstyd van ongeveer tien dae. Die spesies is ook goedkoop en maklik om te teel, en het 'n baie hoe biotiese potensiaal.Care inops pumilio wat op 'n kunsmatige dieet gevoed het, het 'n verlengde ontwikkelingstyd en gewigstoename gehad, en het minder eiers gele as die wat op 'n natuurlike dieet gevoed het. C. pumilio het sy lewensloop op die kunsmatige dieet voltooi en beide die FJ en F2 generasies wat op die kunsmatige dieet gevoed het, was in staat om eiers te Ie. Dit kan die eerste stap wees in 'n poging om 'n kunsmatige dieet te vind wat dit sal moontlik maak om C. pumilio aaneenlopend te teel sodat dit deurlopend beskikbaar kan wees vir gebruik in die biologiese beheer van huisvliee,

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