The relationship between FDI and competitiveness : a comparative study of two African countries, with special reference to the oil and gas industries
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.
The relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and competitiveness in South Africa and Nigeria was investigated. Existing data available in literature was used to analyse trends with regards to FDI and competitiveness in South Africa and Nigeria over the last 10 years. According to the UNCTAD report (2002) in 1997, FDI in Africa was concentrated on five countries namely, Angola, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria and South Africa. Nigeria in the last ten years has consistently outperformed South Africa with regards to the amount of FDI received; yet South Africa outperforms Nigeria on all the competitiveness indices. This has been primarily due to the fact that Nigeria's main source of FDI is the petroleum sector. In Africa 75% of FDI goes into countries endowed with petroleum and mineral resources with very few of these strangling to meet the above list of WAIPA reasons favourable for FDI. The ultimate goal of a nations competitiveness is to increase efficiencies under free and fair market conditions through foreign trade, production and investment. Main results of this study have been the following; • Oil is a major FDI attractor of FDI in Africa, and explains why Nigeria receives more FDI than South Africa. • Although Nigeria does not have a good competitive record relative to South Africa it does however offer competitive fiscal terms to IOC's to explore and exploit the countries abundant petroleum resources. • Oil wealth struggles to filter down to the people of the country, as Nigeria's per capita income remains about fifteen times lower than South Africa's, with its more efficient economy. • This study confirms the fact that many MNC's especially in Africa tend to be driven by resource-seeking opportunities and rather than efficiency seeking opportunities. Unfortunately many of the petroleum exporting countries are unable to use the wealth generated by the petroleum industry to enhance their global competitiveness. The problem is that many countries are not diversified enough and rely extensively on commodities to generate much needed revenue.