Psychological and endocrine indicators of stress : health and management implications

Saunders, Lucy C. (Lucy Chloe) (2003-03)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction: This is a multidisciplinary investigation of stress in working males. The physiological aspect of the stress response is focused primarily on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the health outcomes focus on cardiovascular risk and the psychological aspect focuses on both personality and state. Aims: To assess psychological and physiological measures of stress and determine if they are associated. To assess the effect of massage as a relaxation intervention on these measures. Abstract: Section 1 This study consisted of 16 working, stressed males. Certain measures of allostatic load were determined, on 2 occasions 1 week apart with appropriate control (serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAs), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein) as well as perceived stress levels (State Anxiety, Profile of Mood (POMS), Job Satisfaction (JS), Symptoms of Stress (SYMP». Measurements of personality (Trait Anxiety and Hardiness, with subs cores Commitment, Control and Challenge) and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Repeatability was assessed and then data was averaged. Correlation analysis was done between baseline physiological and psychological parameters. (All r values reported in this abstract have P<0.05, unless otherwise stated). Section 2 11 of the 16 subjects then had 1 week of intensive massage (5 x Ihr each), after which a 3rd measurement was taken. Findings: Section 1 Certain personalities had differing perceptions of stress (Commitment correlated positively with Vigour, r= 0.59; and negatively with Fatigue and POMS, r= -0.51 and r= -0.54 respectively). Certain personalities influenced JS (Commitment correlated positively to JS, r= 0.55; Trait Anxiety correlated negatively to JS, r= -0.54). Certain personalities manifested stress physiologically (Control correlated negatively with CortisollDHEAs, r= -0.53). Increased perception of stress also resulted in an increased likelihood of experiencing physiological symptoms of stress (e.g. State Anxiety correlated with SYMP, r= 0.50). In contrast, lower perceived stress was associated with increased job satisfaction (POMS correlated with JS, r= -0.64; P<O.OI) and those who experienced more JS had decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) OS correlated negatively to LDL, r= -0.53). Physiological measures of CVD were also higher in subjects with antropometrically evaluated risk profiles. Section 2 Baseline variability of various parameters ranged form moderate to high (CV 4.4% to 73%). The intervention had no significant measured effect. 45% of subjects increased state-related stress. These subjects had had significant lower scores for Commitment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Section 1 Certain personality types are associated with decreased perception of stress, decreased stress symptomology and improved endocrine markers of allostatic load. Certain personality dispositions are associated with improved job satisfaction and decreased risk of CVD. These characteristics include e.g. high commitment, low anxiety and a sense of control i.e. all inherent predispositions. To improve sensitivity to intervention, 3 baseline samples should be considered in future studies. Section2 Contrary to what was hypothesized, massage had no effect. This is possibly due to the large daily variations in these variables and outside influences, which are necessarily a part of real-life as opposed to laboratory studies. Possibly I week of intensive relaxation therapy is insufficient and longer-term, lifestyle changing intervention is recommended for future studies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding: Hierdie studie is 'n multi-dissiplinêre ondersoek na stres in werkende mans. Die fisiologiese aspek van die stresrespons fokus primêr op die hipotalamo-pituitêre-adrenale as, terwyl die gesondsheidsuitkomste op die kardiovaskulêre risiko, en die psigologiese aspek op beide persoonlikheid en status fokus. Doel: Om psigiese en fisiologiese parameters van stress te bepaal, en om vas te stelof hulle met mekaar korrelleer. Om die effek van massering, as ontspanningsterapie, op hierdie parameters te bepaal. Afdeling 1 Sestien gespanne, werkende mans het aan hierdie studie deelgeneem. Sekere parameters van allostatiese lading (serum kortisol, dehidroepiandrosteroon-sulfaat (DHEAs), totale cholesterol, lae digtheid- (LDL) en hoë digtheid lipoproteïene (HDL) is twee maal bepaal, met 'n tussenpose van een week, met gepaste kontrole. Terselfdertyd is subjektiewe ervaring van stres (Toestand Angs, Profiel van Gemoedstemming (POMS), Werksbevrediging (JS), Simptome van Stres (SYMP», metings van persoonlikheid (Trekangs en Hardiness, i.e. Gebondenheid, Beheer en Uitdaging) en antropometriese metings ook verkry. Herhaalbaarheid is getoets en daarna is die gemiddelde van hierdie twee basislyn bepalings gebruik. Korrelasie analises is gedoen tussen basislyn fisiologiese en psigiese parameters. (Alle r-waardes gerapporteer in hierdie samevatting het P< 0.05, behalwe waar anders aangedui.) Afdeling 2 Elf van die sestien proefpersone het 1 week van intensiewe masseerterapie (5 x 1 uur elk) ondergaan, waarna 'n derde meting geneem is. Resultate: Afdeling 1 Sekere persoonlikhede het verskillende ervarings van stres getoon (Toegewydheid het positief gekorreleer met lewenslus, r= 0.59; en negatief met uitputting en POMS, r= -0.51 en r= -0.54 onderskeidelik). Sekere persoonlikhede het werksbevrediging (JS) beïnvloed (Toegewydheid het positief gekorreleer met JS, r = 0.55; Trait anxiety het negatief gekorreleer met JS, r= -0.54). Sekere persoonlikhede het ook fisiologiese geneigdheid tot stres getoon (Beheer het negatief gekorreleer met CIDHEAs, r= -0.53). Verhoogde ervaring van stres het 'n verhoogde waarskynlikheid vir ervaring van fisiologiese simptome van stres tot gevolg gehad (bv. Toestand Angs het positief gekorreleer met SYMP, r= 0.50). In teenstelling, is laer ervaring van stres geassosieer met verhoogde werksbevrediging (POMS het positief gekorreleer met JS, r= -0.64; P<O.Ol). Die persone wat hoer werksbevrediging ervaar het, het 'n laer risiko om kardiovaskulêre siektes (eVD) op te doen (JS het negatief gekorreleer met LDL, r= -0.53). Fisiologiese mates van CVD was ook hoër in proefpersone met antropometries geëvalueerde risiko profiele. Afdeling 2 Die mate van variasie in die basislyn fisiologiese bepalings het gewissel van gemiddeld tot hoog (KV 4.4 % tot 73 %). Die ingreep het geen meetbare effek getoon nie. 45 % van proefpersone het verhoogde status-verwante stres gerapporteer. Hierdie proefpersone het betekenisvollaer waardes vir Toewyding gehad (P< 0.05). Gevolgtrekking: Afdeling 1 Sekere persoonlikheidstipes word geassosieer met verlaagde ervaring van stres, verlaagde voorkoms van simptome van stres en verbeterde endokriene merkers van allostatiese lading. Sekere persoonlikheidstrekke word geassosieer met verhoogde werksbevrediging en verlaagde risiko vir CVD. Hierdie karaktertrekke sluit hoë toegewydheid, lae angstigheid en die vermoë om beheer uit te oefen in, d.i. alle inherente karaktertrekke. Drie basislyn metings behoort in die toekoms oorweeg te word, om die sensitiwiteit vir die ingreep te verbeter. Afdeling 2 Teenoorgesteld aan die hipotese, het massering geen effek getoon nie. Dit kan moontlik as gevolg van die groot daaglike variasie in hierdie veranderlikes wees, asook buite-invloede, wat noodwendig 'n deel van regte-lewe studies is, in teenstelling met laboratoriumstudies. Een week van intensiewe ontspanningsterapie kon ook moontlik onvoldoende gewees het. Daarom word langer-termyn, leefstyl-veranderende ingrepe aanbeveel.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53563
This item appears in the following collections: