Ondersoek na moontlikhede vir entrepreneuriese ontwikkeling in 'n landelike toerisme-area

Le Roux, Anneri (2003-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Poverty and unemployment are currently serious socio-economic problems in South Africa. One way of dealing with this problem is entrepreneurial development. Growth in the tourism sector, specifically in rural tourism, has increased substantially in South Africa in the last decade. Facilities, services and products offered by entrepreneurs are part of the South African tourism industry. This trend created a need for information concerning tourists' needs regarding products and services. The primary aim of this study was thus to investigate the needs of tourists regarding products and services which can lead to entrepreneurial development in a rural tourism setting. A literature review has been undertaken to provide an in-depth report concerning the literature that forms the theoretical basis for this study. Definition of relevant terms, the link between tourism and recreation and the positive and negative impacts of tourism were discussed. Rural tourism and sustainable tourism development were discussed next, followed by literature regarding the tourist, his/her shopping behavior and the importance of crafts. Employment generation, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial development in tourism, entrepreneurial training and the link between entrepreneurship and crafts were also discussed. The geographical demarcation of the study was the rural town of Darling on the South African West Coast and the 15 km radius surrounding the town. This region is a popular tourist destination. Despite this, unemployment is still a serious problem. A situation analysis of the available facilities in Darling was done to determine which products, services and attractions the relevant businesses and artists of the area offer to tourists. The data analysis of the information that was gathered through document analysis and structured interviews showed that the area is popular with nature as well as culture lovers. To be able to determine the needs and compile a profile of the average tourist that visits a rural town like Darling. Tourists were approached to serve as respondents for the study. A sample was taken and the respondents completed self-administered questionnaires. Frequency and contingency tables were constructed to compile a tourist profile and to identify the needs of tourists visiting a rural region like Darling. On account of this data, shortcomings were identified between that which Darling offers and the needs of tourists. Recommendations were made concerning ways to address these shortcomings in a manner that can/may facilitate entrepreneurial development and at the same time use the existing facilities in Darling. The conclusions suggest that the businesses and artists involved in this study contribute towards tourism and to a certain extent satisfy tourists' needs. Respondents indicated, inter alia, a need for products that are unique to the area. In light of the fact that a typical "Darling product" was not identified in the situation analysis, this was found to be a particularly severe shortcoming. Recommendations were made to address the identified shortcomings by way of training programmes aimed at facilitating entrepreneurial development in Darling.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Armoede en werkloosheid is wesenlike sosio-ekonomiese probleme in Suid-Afrika. Entrepreneuriese ontwikkeling is een manier om hierdie probleme aan te spreek. Groei in die toerismesektor, spesifiek in landelike toerisme, het in die laaste dekade in Suid-Afrika skerp toegeneem. Fasiliteite, dienste en produkte van entrepreneurs maak deel uit van die Suid-Afrikaanse toerismebedryf. Hierdie tendense het 'n behoefte geskep aan inligting oor toeriste se behoeftes aan produkte en dienste wat veral deur entrepreneurs aangespreek kan word. Die hoofdoelwit van die studie was dus om ondersoek in te stel na die behoeftes van toeriste aan produkte en dienste wat kan lei na entrepreneuriese ontwikkeling in 'n landelike toerisme-area. 'n Literatuuroorsig is gedoen om 'n indiepte verslag te lewer aangaande die literatuur wat 'n teoretiese onderbou vir die studie uitmaak. Relevante begripsomskrywings, die verband tussen toerisme en rekreasie asook die positiewe en negatiewe impakte van toerisme op gebiede wat besoek word, is bespreek. Landelike toerisme en volhoubare toerisme-ontwikkeling is in oënskou geneem en literatuur oor die toeris, sy/haar inkopiegewoontes en die belang van handwerkprodukte is ondersoek. Werkskepping, entrepreneurskap, entrepreneuriese-ontwikkeling in toerisme, entrepreneuriese opleiding en die verband tussen entrepreneurskap en die beoefening van handwerk is beredeneer. Die geografiese afbakening van die studiegebied sluit Darling, 'n landelike dorpie aan die Weskus van Suid-Afrika en 'n gebied binne 'n radius van 15 km om dié dorp in. Hierdie is 'n gebied wat baie toeriste lok, maar waar werkloosheid ook aan die orde van die dag is. 'n Situasie-analise van Darling se beskikbare fasiliteite is gedoen om te bepaal watter produkte, dienste en attraksies ondernemings en kunstenaars van die dorp en omgewing aan toeriste bied. Die data-analise van die inligting wat deur dokumentanalises en gestruktureerde onderhoude ingewin is, het getoon dat die gebied gewild is by natuursowel as kultuurliefhebbers. Ten einde in staat te wees om die behoeftes te bepaal asook 'n profiel saam te stel van die gemiddelde toeris wat 'n landelike gebied soos Darling besoek, is toeriste genader om as respondente vir die studie op te tree. 'n Steekproef is geneem en self-geadministreerde vraelyste is deur die respondente voltooi. Frekwensieen gebeurlikheidstabelle is opgestel om 'n toeristeprofiel saam te stel en om die behoeftes van toeriste wat 'n landelike gebied soos Darling besoek, te identifiseer. Na aanleiding van hierdie data is leemtes geïdentifiseer tussen dit wat Darling bied en die behoeftes van die toeriste. Aanbevelings is gemaak om hierdie leemtes aan te spreek op maniere wat entrepreneuriese-ontwikkeling kan/sal fasiliteer deur reeds bestaande fasiliteite in Darling te benut. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat die ondernemings en kunstenaars wat by die studie betrokke was, bydra tot toerisme en toeriste se behoeftes gedeeltelik aanspreek. Respondente het onder meer 'n groot behoefte aan produkte wat uniek aan die gebied is, aangedui. Aangesien daar nie 'n tipiese "Darling-produk" in die situasie-analise geïdentifiseer is nie, word dit as 'n groot leemte beskou. Aanbevelings is gemaak om die geïdentifiseerde leemtes deur middel van opleidingsprogramme wat entrepreneuriese ontwikkeling in Darling sou kon fasiliteer, aan te spreek.

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