Non-covalent immobilisation of a ligand system : a new approach to affinity separation

Liebenberg, Liesl Eileen (2003-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Advances in pharmacology, biochemistry and biotechnology are increasingly dependant upon affinity chromatography as a preferred separation technique for the purification and characterisation of specific biomolecules. In the past few years avidin-biotin technology has been widely and successfully used in the fields of medicine, pharmacy, biology and biochemistry. The avidin-biotin complex (ABC) has been used as a mediator for affinity chromatography, affinity cytochemistry, immunoassay, histopathology, bioaffinity sensors, erosslinking and immobilisation studies. The main reason for the popularity of the ABC and its growing usefulness in biotechnology is the exceptionally high affinity (1015 M-l) and stability of the noncovalent interaction between avidin and biotin. The use of the ABC is broadening as different biotin derivatives and avidin-containing conjugates are becoming commercially available. The aim of this work was to evaluate the usefulness of a plutonic" FI 08 and the ABC conjugate to effect affinity separation. Towards this aim, the adsorption of plutonic" F108 onto hydrophobic polysulphone membrane surfaces was studied. This information was used to determine the theoretical maximum amount of pluronic" FI08 that will adsorb onto a unit surface area of the membrane. It is known that the polypropylene oxide (PPO) centre block ofthe pluronic" F I08 surfactant molecule governs the concentration of pluronic" F I 08 molecules that will adsorb onto a given hydrophobic surface. If the maximum coating concentration of plutonic" FI08 is known, one can assume that the maximum coating concentration of any pluronic derivative, with the same PPO centre block size, will be the same. Adsorption studies were carried out, the Langmuir adsorption isotherm was determined, and subsequently the fractional coating was calculated. The end-groups of plutonic" FI08 were modified as follows and the substituted pluronic was adsorbed onto a membrane that was to act as the solid support matrix in the development of an affinity system: Amino pluronic was synthesised by first tosylating pluronic" FI08, followed by azidation with NaN3 then reduction with LiAI~. The synthesised amino pluronic was then biotinylated using N-hydroxysuccinimide biotin ester. The suitability of this synthetic route was first assessed on a model compound, 2-methoxyethylamine, and validated by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy. The synthetic protocol was then used to derivatise the larger pluronic molecule. The affinity system was tested on two different hydrophobic surfaces: polystyrene and polysulphone membranes (PSMs). Avidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was obtained and used to interact with the immobilised biotin. The enzymatic reaction of the coupled peroxidase converted the substrate, 2, 2'-azino-di-(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) to a coloured product. The colour developed is proportional to the amount of biotin that was immobilised on the hydrophobic surfaces studied. Non-covalent immobilisation of the synthesised biotin-pluronic molecule was successfully obtained onto the hydrophobic polystyrene as well as the polysulphone membrane surfaces.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vooruitgang in die farmakologie, biochemie en biotegnologie word al meer afhanklik van affiniteits chromatografie as die verkose tegniek vir die suiwering en karaterisering van spesifieke biomolekules. Oor die afgelope jare het die avidien-biotien tegnologie homself as baie bruikbaar bewys in die mediese, farmakologiese, biologiese en biochemiese velde. Toepassings waar die avidien-biotien kompleks betrokke was sluit in die toepassing as 'n mediator vir affiniteits chromatografie, affiniteits sitologie, immuno bepalings, histopatologie, bioaffiniteits sensors sowel as kruisbinding en immobiliserings studies en vele meer. Die hoofrede vir die gewildheid van die avidien-biotien kompleks en die groeiende bruikbaarheid in die biotegnologie is die buitengewone hoë affiniteit (l015 M-I ) en stabiliteit van die nie-kovalente interaksie tussen avidien en biotien. Die toepassingsveld van die avidien-biotien kompleks word wyer met die verskeidenheid biotien derivate en avidien-bevattende konjugate wat kommersiëel beskikbaar is. Die doel van die werk wat hier gedokumenteer word is om die bruikbaarheid van Plutonic" FI08 en die avidien-biotien kompleks, vir gebruik in 'n affiniteits chromatografie sisteem, te evalueer. Om hierdie doel te bereik is die adsorpsie van Pluronic" FI08 aan hidrofobiese polisulfoon membraan oppervlaktes bestudeer. Die eksperimentele data wat gegenireer is, is gebruik om die teoretiese maksimum hoeveelheid Pluronic wat per eenheids oppervlakte membraan adsorbeer te bepaal. Dit is reeds bekend dat die polipropileen (PPO) middel blok van die Pluronic emulgant die konsentrasie van die geadsorbeerde Pluronic molekules op 'n gegewe hidrofobiese oppervlakte bepaal. Indien die maksimum bedekkingskonsentrasie VIr maksimum oppervlakbedekking van Plutonic" FI08 bekend is, kan teoreties aanvaar word dat die bedekkingskonsentrasie vir enige Pluronic derivaat met dieselfde grootte PPO blok dieselfde sal wees. Adsorpsiestudies was uitgevoer om die Langmuir adsorpsie isoterm te bepaal. Daaropvolgend was die fraksionele bedekking bereken. Amino-pluronic was gesintetiseer deur die eindpunte van Pluronic te derivatiseer. Hierdie Pluronic derivaat was gevolglik geadsorbeer aan 'n membraan wat gedien het as die soliede oppervlakte vir die ontwikkeling van 'n affiniteits chromatografie sisteem. Amino-pluronic was gesintetiseer deur Pluronic eers te tosileer en daarna te asideer met NaN3 en laastens te reduseer met LiAI~. Die produk was gebiotinileer deur gebruik te maak van N-hidroksisuksinimied-biotien-ester. Die bruikbaarheid van hierdie sintetiese roete is eers bepaal deur van 'n model verbinding, 2-metoksiëtielamien, gebruik te maak en dit met behulp van KMR (Kern Magnetiese Resonans) spektroskopie te karakteriseer. Die affiniteits sisteem is getoets op twee verskillende hidrofobiese oppervlaktes naamlik polistireen en polisulfoon membraan oppervlaktes. Avidien gekonjugeerd met 'n peroksiedase ensiem is gebruik om met die geïmmobiliseerde biotien te assosieer. Die ensiematiese reaksie van die gekoppelde peroksiedase het die substraat 2, 2' -azino-di-(3-etiel-benzthiazolien-6-sulfoonsuur) (ABTS) omgesit na 'n gekleurde produk, waar dit teenwoordig is. 'n Reeks wasstappe is gebruik om die gemodifiseerde peroksidase ensiem wat nie aan die hidrofobiese oppervlakte gekoppel nie, weg te spoel. Hierdeur is die mate van binding aan die hirofobiese oppervlakte gekwantifiseer deur die kleur te kwantifiseer wat ontwikkelomdat die kleurontwikkeling direk proporsioneel is aan die hoeveelheid peroksidase wat nog aan die membraan gekoppel is. Nie-kovalente immobilisasie van die gesintetiseerde biotien-pluronic molekule is suksesvolop beide die hidrofobiese polistireen oppervlakte sowel as die polisulfoon membraan verkry.

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