Imposed loads for inaccessible roofs of light industrial steel buildings

De Villiers, Pieter Jacobus (2003-04)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Some digitised pages may appear illegible due to the condition of the original hard copy.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A critical evaluation of provisions for imposed loads in the South African Loading Code for design of structures, SABS 0160-1989 (SABS), by comparison with other codes was performed earlier. The evaluation revealed the SABS loading code to be generally non-conservative in its provisions for imposed loads for a range of general and specialist occupancy classes. The SABS provision for imposed loads for inaccessible roofs was found to be substantially non-conservative in comparison with the other codes. An investigation into the imposed load for inaccessible roofs is subsequently performed in order to establish a scientific rationale through which the codified design values may be measured effectively. Due to the lack of information and the large uncertainties involved in the imposed roof load, stochastic treatment of the loads is implemented. This is in line with the stochastic modelling of loads as implemented in general. The approach applied is to select a type of building that can be regarded as a generic example of buildings to which these loads apply, and to discretisize the load into the various sub-mechanisms that translate into the imposed roof load. The probabilistic models for the load mechanisms are then quantified, either through physical load surveys, or through conducting an expert survey for those variables which are not observable. The use of expert opinion as a resource for information is not readily accessible in terms of yielding scientifically defendable results. Therefore, the expert survey is performed as a calibrated experiment whereby weights were calculated for the individual experts' opinions and their opinions combined accordingly. The probabilistic models for the load mechanisms are then translated into load effects by taking into account the physical process resulting in the load effects. By applying these mechanisms in such a way as to maximise the said load effects, equivalent uniformly distributed loads (EUDL's) were calculated for each mechanism. The probabilistic models obtained in terms of the EUDL's pose an easily accessible format through which existing load models and codified provisions can be evaluated. These load models are then utilised to evaluate the SABS provisions in terms of the level of reliability catered for by SABS ultimate limit-state design criteria. It is concluded that the SABS conservatively provides for maintenance loads on the roof, while the reliability for construction loads is non-conservative for large tributary areas and highly non-conservative for small areas. The load models so obtained can further be applied for structural reliability assessment.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: "n Kritiese evaluasie van die voorskrifte vir opgelegde belastings in die Suid- Afrikaanse Selastingskode vir die ontwerp van strukture, SASS 0160-1989 (SASS) deur 'n vergelyking met ander kodes is vroeër uitgevoer. Die evaluasie het getoon dat die SASS in die algemeen onkonserwatief is in sy voorsiening vir opgelegde belastings oor 'n bereik van algemene en spesialis okkupasie tipes. Die SASS voorskrif vir opgelegde belastings vir ontoeganklike dakke is hoogs onkonserwatief in vergelyking met die ander kodes. 'n Ondersoek na die opgelegde belasting vir ontoeganklike dakke word gevolglik uitgevoer met die doelom 'n wetenskaplike rasionaal daar te stel waardeur die gekodifiseerde voorskrifte effektief gemeet kan word. As gevolg van die gebrek aan inligting en groot onsekerhede betrokke by die opgelegde dakbelasting word stogastiese modellering geimplimenteer. Die aanslag wat gevolg is, is om 'n tipe gebou te selekteer wat beskou kan word as verteenwoordigend van die geboue waarvoor hierdie belastings van toepassing is, en om die belasting te diskretiseer in die verskeie lasmeganismes wat die opgelegde dakbelasting voortbring. Die waarskynlikheidsmodelle vir die lasmeganismes word dan gekwantifiseer, óf deur fisiese opnames, óf deur die uitvoering van 'n ekspertopname vir daardie veranderlikes wat nie waarneembaar is nie. Die gebruik van ekspert opinie as "n bron van inligting is nie maklik toeganklik in terme daarvan om wetenskaplik verdedigbare resultate te lewer nie. Daarom is die ekspert-opname uitgevoer soos 'n gekalibreerde eksperiment waardeur relatiewe gewigte bereken word vir die individuele eksperts en hulopinies daarvolgens gekombineer word. Die waarskynlikheidsmodelle vir die lasmeganismes word dan omgeskakel in laseffekte deur in agneming van die fisiese proses wat die las-effek voortbring. Deur die lasmeganismes op só 'n manier toe te pas dat die betrokke las-effekte gemaksimeer word, word ekwivalent uniforme belastings (EUS's) bepaal. Die waarskynlikheidsmodelle in terme van EUS's bied "n maklik toeganklike formaat waardeur bestaande lasmodelle en gekodifiseerde voorskrifte evalueer kan word. Die lasmodelle word gevolglik gebruik om die SASS voorskrifte te evalueer in terme van die vlak van betroubaarheid wat gehandhaaf word deur SASS limiet-staat ontwerp kriteria. Dit is bepaal dat die SASS konserwatief voorsiening maak vir onderhoudslaste op die dak, maar onkonserwatief tot hoogs-onkonserwatief is vir konstruksie laste. Die bepaalde lasmodelle kan verder toegepas word in strukturele betroubaarheids analise.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53460
This item appears in the following collections: