Die VSA se veranderende beleid teenoor die Republiek van China (Taiwan), 1969-1979

October, Hyginus Henry Norman (2003-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine the factors and circumstances which led to the changing policy of the US towards the Republic of China (Taiwan) and to present a new synthesis on the topic. By placing the process of change, and the opposition against it or the manipulation thereof, in a chronological-analytical perspective, an attempt is made to present a holistic view of the important historical events. Within the context of the Cold War, the US adapted and changed its China policy to combat post-war conditions, especially in regard to the fight against Communist expansion in the Far East. While the US initially supported Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist government during the World War Two, it adhered to a policy of vacillating neutrality during the Chinese Civil War. After the Communist take over in China during October 1949, the US did not acknowledge the new People's Republic of China, nor did it side with the Republic of China on Taiwan (where Chiang Kai-shek and his followers fled during the Chinese Civil War). With the outbreak of the Korean war the US decided on an active China policy and Taiwan was protected from any attack by the Chinese Communists. During the 1950s and 1960s Taiwan was made part of the US security network in order to contain Communist expansion in the Far East. As such the island was drawn into the Cold War. By the end of the 1960s Nixon started rapprochement with the People's Republic of China and by the end of the 1970s Carter formally severed diplomatic relations with the ROC on Taiwan. However, the US changing policy with regard to the ROC was not so simple, because amongst American political leaders and the government there were serious differences of opinion over then US China policy. At times an ambiguous China policy was adhered to. Various factors and circumstances led to US policy changes with regard to the ROC on Taiwan. A process of change took place which led to political, international, economic and legal implications for the ROC on Taiwan.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie is om die faktore en omstandighede wat tot die VSA se veranderende beleid teenoor die Republiek van China (Taiwan) gelei het, te ondersoek en om 'n nuwe sintese oor die onderwerp te bied. Deur die proses van verandering en verset daarteen of manu pule ring daarvan in 'n kronologies-analitiese perspektiefte plaas, word gepoog om 'n holistiese beeld van die belangrikste historiese gebeure te skets. Binne die konteks van die Koue Oorlog is die VSA se Chinese-beleid aangepas en verander om die na-oorlogse omstandighede die hoofte bied, veral in die VSA se stryd om die uitbreiding van Kommunisme in die Verre-Ooste te bekamp. Waar die VSA aanvanklik 'n ondersteuner van Tsjiang Kaitsjek en die Nasionalistiese regering gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was, het die VSA 'n beleid van weifelende neutraliteit tydends die Chinese Burgeroorlog gevolg. Na die Kommunistiese oorname in China in Oktober 1949, het die VSA nie die nuwe Volksrepubliek van China erken nie, maar hy het hom ook nie aan die kant van die Republiek van China op Taiwan (waarheen Tsjiang Kaitsjek en sy volgelinge gedurende die Chinese Burgeroorlog gevlug het) geskaar nie. Met die uitbreek van die Koreaanse Oorlog is daar op 'n daadwerklike Chinese-beleid besluit en Taiwan is beskerm teen enige aanval van die Chinese Kommuniste. Ten einde die verspreiding van Kommuniste vas te pen is Taiwan gedurende die 1950's en 1960's deel van die VSA se sekuriteitsnetwerk in die Verre-Ooste gemaak. Sodoende is die eiland in die Koue Oorlog betrek. Teen die einde van die 1960's het Nixon toenadering tot die Volksrepubliek van China begin en teen die einde van die 1970's het Carter formele diplomatieke betrekkinge met die RC op Taiwan beëindig. Die VSA se veranderende beleid teenoor die RC was egter nie so eenvoudig nie, want onder Amerikaanse politieke leiers en die regering was daar ernstige meningsverskille oor die VSA se Chinese-beleid. By tye is daar 'n dubbelslagtige Chinese-beleid gevolg. Verskeie faktore en omstandighede het daartoe gelei dat die VSA sy beleid teenoor die RC op Taiwan verander het. 'n Proses van verandering het plaasgevind wat politieke, internasionale, ekonomiese en regsimplikasie vir die RC op Taiwan tot gevolg gehad het.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53392
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