Characterisation of biogenic amine genes in lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine

Downing, Lynn,1978- (2003-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The winemaking process involves a complex microbial flora where the interaction of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria play an important role in the quality and wholesomeness of the final product. Yeasts are primarily responsible for alcoholic fermentation. Malolactic fermentation follows alcoholic fermentation and is conducted by lactic acid bacteria. These bacteria are important in winemaking and can have a positive or negative effect on the wine quality. Biogenic amines are one of the compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria, which affect the hygienic quality and wholesomeness of the wine negatively and directly pose a health risk to the consumer. The demand of consumers for higher quality and healthier foods has led to renewed interest in studies on biogenic amines. Biogenic amines occur in a wide variety of food products, such as cheese, dried sausage, sauerkraut, fishery products, chocolates, wine and beer. This thesis focussed on the presence of biogenic amines in wine. The first objective of the study was to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from South African wine to produce biogenic amines, using a decarboxylase screening plate method. The potential to produce the biogenic amines histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine was investigated. The results obtained showed that Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus hilgardil) might be the lactic acid bacteria responsible for tyramine and putrescine production and that it can contribute significantly to the overall biogenic amine content in wines. The results also suggest that amine production is strain dependent and not species specific. None of the lactic acid bacteria tested had the ability to produce histamine or cadaverine. It is important to remember that the ability of the lactic acid bacteria to produce biogenic amines has only been investigated in synthetic media and that it does not necessarily imply similar behaviour in wine. Wine represents a complex environment with a wide number of factors influencing microbial growth and decarboxylase activity and, thus, further investigation is necessary to determine if these amine-producing bacteria behave similarly in wine conditions. In addition, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification method was used for the identification of the tyrosine decarboxylase (TOe) gene in some of the tyramine-producing lactic acid bacteria. This was followed by the sequencing of the amplified products, which are partial TOe gene sequences, of two L. brevis strains and of a L. hilgardii strain. Only one tdc gene sequence has been described for bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis), while a partial TOC gene sequence from L. brevis lOEB 9809 was described. An amino acid sequence alignment of the three TOe gene fragments, obtained in this study, with the known TOe gene fragment of L. brevis lOEB 9809 and the tdc gene of E. faecalis showed a high degree of relatedness and conserved regions. To meet consumer demands, procedures are necessary to prevent the formation of amines in food products. One way of preventing the formation of biogenic amines is to relate amine production with certain lactic acid bacteria species involved in the winemaking process. Another possible way would be to develop a rapid detection method for bacteria carrying amino acid decarboxylase genes. The results of this study provide knowledge about which lactic acid bacteria in the winemaking process could contribute to the production of biogenic amines and the sequencing of additional partial TOe genes could possibly assist in the development of a rapid detection method for tyramine-producing lactic acid bacteria in food products.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die wynmaakproses behels 'n komplekse mikrobiese flora waar die interaksie van giste, melksuurbakterieë en asynsuurbakterieë 'n belangrike rol speel in die kwaliteit en heilsaamheid van die finale produk. Giste is primêr verantwoordelik vir alkoholiese fermentasie. Appelmelksuurgisting volg op alkoholiese fermentasie en word deur melksuurbakterieë uitgevoer. Hierdie bakterieë is belangrik in die maak van wyn en kan 'n positiewe of negatiewe uitwerking op die kwaliteit van wyn hê. Biogeniese amiene is een van die komponente wat deur melksuurbakterieë geproduseer kan word en wat die higiëniese kwaliteit en heilsaamheid van die wyn benadeel. Dit hou ook 'n gesondheidsrisiko vir die verbruiker in. Die vereiste van verbruikers vir hoër kwaliteit en gesonder voedselprodukte het nuwe belangstelling in studies op biogeniese amiene ontlok. Biogeniese amiene kom in 'n wye verskeidenheid voedselprodukte voor, soos kaas, droëwors, suurkool, vis, sjokolade, wyn en bier. Hierdie tesis fokus op die teenwoordigheid van biogeniese amiene in wyn. Die eerste doelwit van die studie was om melksuurbakterieë, wat uit Suid- Afrikaanse wyn geïsoleer is, se vermoë te bepaal om biogeniese amiene op dekarboksilase-agarplate te produseer. Die potensiaal om die biogeniese amiene histamien, tiramien, putresien en kadawerien te produseer, is bestudeer. Die resultate wat verkry is, toon dat Lactobacillus-spesies (Lactobacillus brevis en Lactobacillus hilgardit) vir tiramien- en putresienproduksie verantwoordelik is en dat hulle 'n belangrike bydrae kan lewer tot die totale biogeniese amienkonsentrasie in wyn. Die resultate dui ook daarop dat die produksie van amiene afhanklik is van die ras, en nié 'n spesifieke spesie nie. Geen melksuurbakterieë wat getoets is, het die vermoë getoon om histamien of kadawerien te produseer nie. Dit is belangrik om in ag te neem dat die vermoë van die melksuurbakterieë om amiene te produseer slegs in sintetiese media bestudeer is en dat dit nie noodwendig dieselfde gedrag in wyn sal toon nie. Wyn is 'n komplekse omgewing met 'n wye verskeidenheid faktore wat die mikrobiese groei en dekarboksilase-aktiwiteit kan beïnvloed, daarom is verdere studie nodig om vas te stelof hierdie amien-produserende bakterieë dieselfde gedrag in wyn sal toon. Die polimerase-kettingreaksie (PKR) amplifikasie-metode is vir die identifikasie van die tirosiendekarboksilase-geen (TDK) in sommige van die tiramienproduserende melksuurbakterieë gebruik. Dit is gevolg deur die volgordebepaling van die geamplifiseerde produkte, wat gedeeltelike TDK-geenvolgordes is, van twee L. brevis- en van een L. hilgardii-ras. Slegs een tdk-geenvolgorde is al voorheen vir bakterieë beskryf, nl. Enterococcus faecalis, asook 'n gedeeltelike TDK-geenvolgorde vir L. brevis lOEB 9809. 'n Vergelyking van die aminosuurvolgordes van die drie TDK-geenfragmente wat in die studie verkry is, het 'n hoë graad van ooreenkoms en gekonserveerde areas met die bekende TDK-geenfragment van L. brevis lOEB 9809 en die tdk-geen van E. faecalis getoon. Om verbruikers se behoeftes te bevredig, is dit noodsaaklik dat die vorming van amiene in voedselprodukte voorkom word. Een manier van voorkoming is om amienproduksie aan sekere melksuurbakterieë wat in die wynmaakproses betrokke is, te koppel. 'n Ander manier sal wees om 'n vinnige metode te ontwikkel vir die opsporing van bakterieë wat aminosuurdekarboksilase-gene dra. Die resultate van die studie verskaf kennis van watter melksuurbakterieë in die wynmaakproses tot die produksie van biogeniese amiene kan bydra. Die volgordebepaling van addisionele gedeeltelike TDK-gene kan moontlik tot die ontwikkeling van 'n vinnige opsporingsmetode van tiramien-produserende melksuurbakterieë in voedselprodukte bydra.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53328
This item appears in the following collections: