Assessing the level of efficiency and effectiveness of tax administration in Eritrea

Hailemicael Arey, Ogbagergis (2003-12)

Thesis (MPA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper that is composed of six chapters discusses the basic issues of modem tax administration and the extent to which Eritrean tax administration adheres to the requirements contained in these issues. The first chapter includes a general introduction, brief historical background of Eritrea, premise, problem definition, objective, design and methods, scope and limitation of the study. The second chapter deals with the literature review on the theoretical perspective of tax system and administration. There are detailed discussions about the types, characteristics, and functions, ethics of taxes and efficiency and effectiveness of tax administration. This theoretical aspect discusses the basic issues of modem tax administration trends and their development and reforms. The reforms are mainly concerned with prevention of tax evasion, avoidance, corruption and measures taken for making tax administration more efficient and reducing the complexity of taxation laws. Chapter three explores international success stories in dealing with major tax issues, thereby using the solutions as benchmarks. Experiences in Singapore, Bolivia, Croatia, Jamaica, Guatemala and Spain are used as standards to examine the level of efficiency and effectiveness of tax administration in Eritrea. This chapter also shows that modem tax administrations are concerned with a stronger focus on taxpayers, employees and their development, usage of technology, financial independence and privatisation of those areas that could be better performed by the private sector. To accomplish the above mentioned goals, the abovementioned countries have set in motion to reform tax administrations with the aim of solving key problems such as low salaries and the connected problems of attracting and retaining high quality personnel and curbing corruption. The fourth chapter presents the actual situation of tax administration in Eritrea. It deals with missions, objectives, functions, human resource condition, facilities, the level of application of modem technology and the weaknesses and strength of the Inland Revenue Department (lRD). It also describes the measures, which have been taken by IRD administration to motivate its employees and to enhance the voluntary compliance of taxpayers. The fifth chapter provides a consolidated assessment of the present situation of tax administration in Eritrea based on international experiences of tax administration and on theoretical aspects of taxation. This chapter also scrutinizes the amendments of Proclamation No. 62/1994 and 64/1994 and their effect on tax administration, saving, consumption and investment in Eritrea. The sixth chapter provides a conclusion and recommendations that could be used by tax authorities in Eritrea to implement the best practices of tax administration used in the abovementioned countries. This study provides an overview on IRD's present situation and how it could successfully manage organisational transformation to achieve significantly increased customer satisfaction, enhanced organisational flexibility, employee motivation and increase in tax collection by following the recommendations based on theory and the experiences of other countries.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie wat bestaan uit ses hoofstukke, word die basiese kwessies om moderne belasting administrasie bespreek en die mate waartoe die belasting administrasie van Eritrië daaraan voldoen. Die eerste hoofstuk sluit die volgende in: 'n algemene inleiding, 'n kort historiese agtergrond oor Eritrië, 'n voorafgaande stelling, 'n probleem definisie, asook die doelwitte, metodes, omvang en delimitasies van die studie. Die tweede hoofstuk bevat 'n literatuur oorsig oor die teoretiese perspektief op belastingsisteme en administrasie. Daar is gedetailleerde besprekings van die tipes, kenmerke en funksies van belasting asook die etiek daarvan en die doeltreffendheid en effektiwiteit van die belasting administrasie. Hierdie hoofstuk bespreek die basiese kwessies i.v.m. die tendense in belasting administrasie, hoe hulle ontwikkel en hoe hulle hervorm kan word. Die hervormings het meestal betrekking op die voorkoming van belasting ontduiking en vermyding, korrupsie, en metodes om die belasting administrasie meer effektief te maak en om die wette minder ingewikkeld te maak. Hoofstuk drie gaan in op internasionale suksesverhale i.v.m. belasting en die oplossings word as bakens gebruik. Die effektiwiteit van Eritrië se belastingstelsel word gemeet aan wat gebeur het in ander lande soos Singapore, Boliwië, Kroatië, Jamaika, Guatemala en Spanje. Hierdie hoofstuk toon ook dat moderne belasting administrasie meer fokus op belastingbetalers, werknemers, die gebruik van tegnologie, finansiële onafhanklikheid en die privatisering van areas wat beter deur die privaatsektor bedryf kan word. Om die bostaande te bereik, het die genoemde lande maatreëls ingestelom die belasting administrasie te hervorm en om die volgende sleutelprobleme op te los: lae salarisse, die lok en behou van hoë kwaliteit personeel en die voorkoming van korrupsie. In die vierde hoofstuk word die eintlike werklikheid van belasting administrasie in Eritrië bespreek. Dit behandel die doelwitte en funksies van die belasting department (IRD) asook die sterktes en swakhede daarvan en tot hoe 'n mate moderne tegnologie gebruik word. Dit beskryf ook wat die belasting departement gedoen het om sy wernemers te motiveer en om die samewerking van belasting betalers te verseker. Die vyfde hoofstuk is 'n waardebepaling van die eintlike huidige situasie van belasting administrasie in Eritrië gemeet teen internasionale ondervindings en die teoretiese aspekte van belasting. In hierdie hoofstuk word ook gekyk na die amendemente tot Proklamasie No 62/1994 en 64/1994 en hulle uitwerking op belasting administrasie, spaar, verbruik en belegging 10 Eritrië. In die sesde hoofstuk is daar gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings wat die outoriteite in Eritrië kan gebruik. Hulle kan die praktyke wat die beste in ander lande gewerk het, implementeer. Hierdie studie verskaf 'n oorsig oor die huidige situasie in die Binnelandse Inkomste Departement in Eritrië en oor hoe organisatoriese hervorming kan plaasvind wat sal lei tot beter belasting betalers tevredenheid, meer organisatoriese vlugheid, werknemers motivering en 'n dramatiese vermeerdering in belasting invordering. Hierdie hervorming moet gegrond wees op die aanbevelings soos geformuleer uit die ondervindings van ander lande.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53299
This item appears in the following collections: