The speech act of apology in Tshivenda educational contexts

Makhado, Avhatakali Jonathan (2002-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: An apology in Tshivenda is offered when an individual has violated a social norm or want to restore any form of a complainable. When it is given, it serves as a remedial work, designed to smooth over any social disruption that was caused. Sometimes a person who is suppose to apologize may find reasons to minimize the degree of the offence. If the offence in question is big, a verbal apology may be insufficient to restore the damaged relationship. Male and female learners commit a lot of offences towards each other at school and they are obliged to apologize for such offences. In the process of apologizing, they are faced with a wide choice of strategies to choose from. In most cases, male learners have a tendency of giving an explanation to their offences. They do not always seek for a direct apology. Inthe acceptance of their offences, they opt for longer strategies to apologize. Males seem to be either proud or shy to ask for an apology from females. Female learners on the other hand, do not want to use longer strategies to apologize, but they ask for forgiveness immediately. It is not all the males who do not want to apologize directly to females, but there are others who apologize directly. They are the ones who take females as their equals and they also want to maintain a good relationship with them. The same applies with females, a minimal number of them use longer strategies to apologize. They do not use direct strategies. There are other strategies also useful in Tshivenda male and female learners, but their use is not so popular. Strategies like explicit acceptance of the blame and expression of self-deficiency are considered the least of other ones. An apology is usually influenced by the way the complainant shows his or her dissatisfaction. Male and female learners also differ with the way they complain. They use complaint strategies differently. Both male and female learners use direct accusation and indirect accusation extensively. But the difference comes by the fact that females are longer with their complaints than males. Females show their annoyance by involving more complaint strategies. Males do not take long to complain, they involve only a few strategies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Verskoning in Tshivenda word aangebied in geval waar 'n individu 'n sosiale reeloortree het. Wanneer dit aangebied word, dien dit as 'n remedie ontwerp om die sosiale onderbreking wat ontstaan het reg te siel. Soms sal die persoon wat veronderstel is om 'n verskoning aan te bied redes vind om die graad van die sosiale oortreding te probeer verminder. ln geval waar die oortreding as baie groot beskou word waar' n mondelingse verskoning nie genoegsaam wees om die verhouding weer te herstel nie. Manne en vrou skoliere behaan heelwat sosiale oortreding teenoor mekaar by die skool en is oorplig om verskoning aan te bied vir sulke oortredings. Tydens die proses van verskoning aanbied word die skoliere gekonfronteer met verskeie opsies om van te kies. Manlike skoliere het die manier om verkonings en verduidelikings te gee vir hulle oortredings. Hulle sal nie 'n direkte apologie aanbied nie. lndien hulle aanvaar dat hulle verkeerd was, sal hul die opsie om hulle verduidelikings te gee as strategie gebruik. Manspersone bly te trots en skaam te wees om 'n apologie te vra van dames. Dames weer vra makliker en direk om verskoning. Hierdie beginstel van om verskoning vra geld nie ten opsigte van alle skoliere nie. Sommiges sal direk apologie aanbied. Ander aanvaar vroulike skoliere as hul gelykes en probeer om 'n gesonde verhouding te handhaf Dieselfde beginsel geld tot vroulike skoliere van hulle sal lang verduidelikings aanbied as 'n strategie deur om verskoning te vra: Hulle vra nie direk om verskoning nie. Daar is ook ander strategiee in gebruiklike in Tshivenda deur manlik sowel as vroulike skoliere, maar is nie populer in gebruik nie. Strategiee soos die duidelike aanvaarding van skuld en die uitdrukking van selfbeskulding word beskou as die minste gebruiklike opsie. 'n Verskoning word beinvloed deur die manier waarop die klaer sy ofhaar misnoe wys of uitspreek. Manlike sowel as vroulike leerders versoek ook in metodiek hoe hulle kla. Hulle maak gebruik van 'n kla strategie wat verskillend is van mekaar. Beide geslagte maak gebruik van direk sowel as indirek beskuldigings. Die verskil egter is by vroulik klaers aangesien hul klagte langer duur as hul manlike ewe nie. Vroulike klaers wys hul woede of ongelukkigheid deur meer klagte strategie te betree. Mans daarom teen neem nie lang om te kla nie en behels net a paar strategiee.

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